Anas ibn Mālik (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Abu Hamzah or Abu Thumāmah Anas ibn Mālik ibn an-Nadr ibn Damdam al-Ansāri an-Najjāri al-Khazraji al-Basri. He was an honorable Companion, and was born ten years before Hijrah. He was the servant of the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him), and was one of Al-Mukthirīn (Companions who narrated more than one thousand Hadīths each) and the last to die among the Companions. He died in Basrah. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) supplicated for him saying: "O Allah, increase his wealth and offspring and admit him into Paradise." When he was still a boy, he accompanied the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) to the Battle of Badr to be in his service. When Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) became the caliph, he summoned Anas to dispatch him to Bahrain to collect Zakah. On consulting ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him), he said: "Send him for he is prudent and a scribe"; so, Abu Bakr sent him. He died in 93 AH.

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Abu Mahdhūrah (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Abu Mahdhūrah Aws ibn Mi‘yar al-Qurashi al-Jumahi. He was an honorable Companion. Scholars held different opinions regarding his name and his father's name. He embraced Islam after the Battle of Hunayn. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) admired his voice and invited him to embrace Islam and he did. He said that the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) had personally assigned him the duty of making Adhān (call to prayer). He commanded him to say: "Allāhu Akbar Allāhu Akbar (Allah is the Most Great, Allah is the Most Great)..." After learning the Adhān, the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) made him his muezzin in Makkah. Many Hadīths were reported on his authority. He died in 59 AH.

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Uways al-Qarani

He is Abu ‘Amr Uways ibn ‘Āmir ibn Jaz’ ibn Mālik al-Qarani. He was an honorable Tābi‘i (a Muslim who met a Companion of the Prophet and died as a Muslim) and one of the senior Tābi‘is. He was one of the distinguished ascetic worshippers. He was from Yemen and lived during the Prophet's lifetime but did not see him. He was in the delegation that was sent to meet ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb, then, he lived in Kufa. It was proven that he was the best among the Tābi‘is. It was proven that Usayr ibn Jābir said: "Whenever reinforcements from the people of Yemen - the group of fighters who support the Muslim armies in war - came to ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb, he would ask them: 'Is Uways ibn ‘Āmir amongst you?' This continued till he met Uways and said to him: 'Are you Uways ibn ‘Āmir?' He said: 'Yes.' ‘Umar asked: 'Are you from the Qarn branch of the tribe of Murād?' He said: 'Yes.' He further asked: 'Did you suffer from leprosy and then you were cured but for the spot of a dirham?' He said: 'Yes.' Then, he asked: 'Is your mother still alive?' He said: 'Yes.' ‘Umar said: 'I heard the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) say: "There would come to you Uways ibn ‘Āmir with reinforcements from the people of Yemen. He would be from Qarn, of Murād. He had been suffering from leprosy from which he was cured but for the spot of a dirham. He has a mother to whom he is dutiful. If he were to take an oath in the name of Allah, Allah would fulfill his oath. If it is possible for you, ask him to ask forgiveness for you." So, ask forgiveness for me.' He asked forgiveness for him. ‘Umar asked: 'Where do you intend to go?' He said: 'To Kufa.' He said: 'Shall I write a letter for you to its governor.' Uways said: 'I prefer to live amongst the poor.' The following year, a man from among the elite (of Kufa) performed Hajj and met ‘Umar, who asked him about Uways. The man replied: 'I left him in an old house and with little means of sustenance.' Thereupon, ‘Umar said: 'I heard the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) say: "There would come to you Uways ibn ‘Āmir with reinforcements from the people of Yemen. He would be from Qarn, of Murād. He had been suffering from leprosy from which he was cured but for the spot of a dirham. He has a mother to whom he is dutiful. If he were to take an oath in the name of Allah, Allah would fulfill his oath. If it is possible for you, ask him to ask forgiveness for you."' So, the man went to Uways and asked him to ask forgiveness for him. Uways said to him: 'You have just returned from a blessed journey; so, it is you who should ask forgiveness for me.' Then, he asked: 'Did you meet ‘Umar?' The man said: ‘Yes.’ Uways asked forgiveness for him. Hence, the people recognized the status of Uways, and so he quickly went away from that place." Usayr added: "He wore a striped garment and whenever anyone would see him, he would ask: 'From where did Uways got this striped garment?'" He died in 37 AH.

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Ayyūb (peace be upon him)

He is Ayyūb (Job) (peace be upon him) the patient prophet. He is one of the prophets who came before Mūsa (Moses). He lived in ‘Uwas, situated in the eastern part of Palestine, or in Hawrān. According to the Arab biographers, he is from the descendants of Ibrāhim (Abraham) with five fathers between them. He was afflicted by Allah in his children and wealth, and was afflicted in his physical health as he remained ill for eighteen years. He showed so much patience that he became the epitome of patience, and he remained patient until Allah removed his affliction.

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Al-Barā’ ibn Mālik (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Al-Barā’ ibn Mālik ibn Damdam. He was an honorable Companion and one of the virtuous people. He was a gallant hero; he killed one hundred men from among the polytheists in duel, apart from those whom he participated in killing. When the Muslims marched towards the polytheists in Yamāmah and besieged them in a garden and Musaylimah, the enemy of Allah, was there, Al-Barā’ said: "O Muslim people, throw me on them." He was, thus, carried until reaching the garden wall where he forced his way in and fought until he opened it for the Muslims, then Allah killed Musaylimah. Al-Barā’ died in 20 AH.

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Buraydah ibn al-Husayb al-Aslami (may Allah be pleased with him)

Buraydah ibn al-Husayb ibn ‘Abdullah al-Aslami was an honorable Companion. Ibn as-Sakan said about him: "He embraced Islam when the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) passed by him at Al-Ghamīm on his way emigrating to Madīnah. He remained where he was until after the Battles of Badr and Uhud, then he went to Madīnah. It was said that he embraced Islam after the Prophet's departure from Badr. He lived in Basrah after being taken over by Muslims. He died in 63 AH.

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Al-Barā’ ibn ‘Āazib (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is Abu ‘Umārah, and it was said: Abu ‘Amr or Abu At-Tufayl, Al-Barā’ ibn ‘Āzib ibn al-Hārith al-Khazraji. He was an honorable Companion. He said about himself: "I and Ibn ‘Umar were deemed too young by the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) on the Day of Badr; so, he sent us back." Hence, he did not witness the Battle of Badr. It was narrated that he fought along with the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) in fourteen battles - fifteen in another narration. He narrated a number of Hadīths on the authority of the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) and on the authority of his father and on the authority of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and others from among the senior Companions. He died in 71 AH.

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Bilāl al-Habashi

He is Bilāl ibn Rabāh al-Habashi, the muezzin. He is also Bilāl ibn Hamāmah, which is his mother's name. The polytheists used to torture him for embracing Islam; hence, Abu Bakr as-Siddīq purchased him and set him free. He kept close to the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) and became his muezzin, and he witnessed all the battles with him. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) established brotherhood between him and Abu ‘Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrāh. ‘Ammār said: "All said what the polytheists wanted them to say except for Bilāl." After the Prophet's death, Bilāl set out for Jihād until he died in the Levant in 20 AH.

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Al-Khansā’

She is Tumādir bint ‘Amr ibn al-Hārith ibn ash-Sharīd ar-Rīyāhiyyah as-Sulamiyyah. She was nicknamed 'Al-Khansā’' and became well-known with that nickname. She was the most famous among the poets of Najd. She lived most of her life during the pre-Islamic era of ignorance. She gained fame because of the elegies she composed on her two brothers: Sakhr and Mu‘āwiyah. She embraced Islam and went to meet the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) with her people from Banu Sulaym. She had four sons, who all witnessed the War of Al-Qādisiyyah in 16 AH. She kept urging them to remain steadfast until they were all martyred, whereupon she said: "Praise be to Allah Who honored me with their martyrdom." She died in 24 AH.

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Abu Ruqayyah Tamīm ibn Aws ad-Dāri (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Tamīm ibn Aws ibn Hārithah, and it was said: Khārijah ibn Sūd, and it was also said: Sawād ibn Jadhīmah ibn Dhirā‘ ibn ‘Adiyy ibn ad-Dār, Abu Ruqayyah ad-Dāri. He was an honorable Companion. He converted from Christianity to Islam when he went to Madīnah. He mentioned the story of Al-Jassāsah and Ad-Dajjāl (the Antichrist) to the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him), who later, while being on the pulpit, informed people of such story as reported by Tamīm. This was counted among his virtues. He would frequently spend the night praying. He once performed the night prayer reciting one verse until morning; it was the verse where Allah Almighty says: {Do those who commit evil deeds think that We will make them equal to those who believe and do righteous deeds, in this life and after their death? How poorly they judge!} [Surat al-Jāthiyah: 21] He died in 40 AH.

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Thābit ibn ad-Dahhāk (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Thābit ibn ad-Dahhāk ibn Khalīfah ibn Tha‘labah al-Ansāri al-Ash-hali. He witnessed the Ridwān Pledge. He rode behind the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) on the Battle of Khandaq (the Trench) and was his guide to Hamrā’ al-Asad. He was also one of those who pledged allegiance to the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) under the tree. He died in 45 AH.

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Jābir ibn ‘Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is Jābir ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn Harām al-Ansāri as-Sulamiyy. He was an honorable Companion and one of Al-Mukthirīn (Companions who narrated more than one thousand Hadīths each). A number of the Companions narrated Hadīths on his authority. He and his father enjoyed the honor of the Prophet's companionship. It was authentically reported from him that he was one of those who witnessed Al-‘Aqabah Pledge. He said: "The Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) led twenty-one battle in person, nineteen of which I fought along with him." He died after the seventy and lived a long life. He requested that Al-Hajjāj ibn Yūsuf should not offer the funeral prayer over him.

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Al-Hubāb ibn al-Mundhir

He is Al-Hubāb ibn al-Mundhir ibn al-Jamūh al-Ansāri al-Khazraji then as-Sulami. He was an honorable Companion, a fearless fighter, a poet, and was called 'Dhul-Ra’y' (one whose opinion is highly appreciated). Ath-Tha‘ālibi said: "He was the one whose advice was put into effect on the Day of Badr. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) adopted his opinion and Jibrīl (Gabriel) descended and supported Hubāb's view; in addition to his famous opinions during the pre-Islamic era of ignorance." He died, when he was over fifty years old, during the caliphate of ‘Umar almost in the year 20 AH.

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Juwayriyah bint al-Hārith (may Allah be pleased with her)

She is Juwayriyah bint al-Hārith ibn Abu Dirār al-Khuzā‘iyyah al-Mustaliqiyyah, Mother of the Believers. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) married her on the fifth or sixth year of Hijrah. Her name was "Barrah", but the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) changed her name. She died in 56 AH.

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Al-Husayn ibn ‘Ali

He is Al-Husayn ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib al-Hāshimi, Abu ‘Abdullah, the Prophet's martyred grandson and the son of Fātimah az-Zahrā’. He was born in Madīnah in 4 AH. There is a Hadīth that reads: "Al-Hasan and Al-Husayn are the masters of the youth of Paradise." He was brought up in the Prophet's house and was killed during the reign of Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiyah in 61 AH.

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Halīmah as-Sa‘diyyah

Halīmah as-Sa‘diyyah, the Prophet's wet nurse, daughter of Abu Dhu’ayb, whose name was ‘Abdullah ibn al-Hārith ibn Shijnah. ‘Atā’ ibn Yasār reported: "Halīmah bint ‘Abdullah, the Prophet's foster mother, came to the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). On seeing her, he stood up to welcome her and spread his garment for her to sit on." She died after the eighth year of Hijrah.

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Jubayr ibn Mut‘im (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Jubayr ibn Mut‘im ibn ‘Adiyy ibn Nawfal ibn ‘Abd Manāf al-Qurashi an-Nawfali. He was an honorable Companion. He was one of the Quraysh seniors and a scholar of genealogy. He went to the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) to ransom some of the captives of Badr and he heard him recite Surat at-Tūr in the Maghrib prayer. Commenting on that incident, he said: "That was the first time when faith got into my heart." The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said to him: "Were Al-Mut’im ibn ‘Adiyy alive and interceded with me for these filthy people, I would have certainly delivered them to him (without ransom)." He was referring to the captives of Badr. [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri] Jubayr embraced Islam in the time between Al-Hudaybiyah Treaty and the Conquest of Makkah, and it was said that he embraced Islam at the time of the Conquest of Makkah. He died during the caliphate of Mu‘āwiyah in 59 AH.

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Abu Dharr al-Ghifāri (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Abu Dharr al-Ghifāri Jundub ibn Junādah, and that is his famous name. He was an honorable Companion and one of the early Muslims; the fourth or fifth person to embrace Islam. He was the first to greet the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) with the greeting of Islam. He went to the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) in Makkah, listened to him, and accepted Islam straightaway. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said to him: "Return to your people and inform them (of the message of Islam) and wait for my command." However, Abu Dharr wanted to proclaim his faith to the people of Makkah; so, he said: "By the One in Whose Hand my soul is, I shall shout out the news of my conversion among them." Thus, he went to the Mosque and called out loud, saying: "I testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and messenger." The people of Makkah started beating him until he fell down. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) would initiate talking with him when he was present, and would ask about him when he was absent. He died in 32 AH.

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Hātib ibn Abi Balta‘ah

He is Hātib ibn Abi Balta‘ah ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Umayr ibn Salamah al-Lakhmi, the ally of Banu Asad ibn ‘Abd al-‘Uzza. Scholars agreed that he witnessed the Battle of Badr. It was reported in the Sunnah that a slave of Abu Balta‘ah went to the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) complaining about Hātib saying: "O Messenger of Allah, Hātib will, indeed, enter Hellfire." However, the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) replied saying: "No (he will not) for he witnessed Badr and Al-Hudaybiyah." Hātib said: "By Allah, I have never had doubts about Allah since I embraced Islam. Nonetheless, I was a stranger and I had children and brothers in Makkah", he said that as an apology for his message to the people of Makkah informing them of the Prophet's plan against them. In relation to this incident, the following verse was revealed: {O you who believe, do not take My enemies and your enemies as allies...} He died in 30 AH.

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Hudhayfah ibn al-Yamān (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Hudhayfah ibn al-Yamān al-‘Absi. His father killed someone; so, he fled to Madīnah. He entered into an alliance with Banu ‘Abd al-Ash-hal; hence, his people called him "Al-Yamān" for becoming an ally of Al-Yamāniyyah. He married Hudhayfah's mother, who gave birth to Hudhayfah in Madīnah. Hudhayfah and his father embraced Islam and Hudhayfah witnessed the Trench Battle and the following battles. He was appointed by ‘Umar as the governor of Madā’in and he stayed there until he died after ‘Uthmān had been killed and forty days after pledging allegiance to ‘Ali. Al-Bukhāri and Muslim narrated that Abu ad-Dardā’ said to ‘Alqamah: "Wasn't there among you the person who keeps the secrets (of the Prophet) which nobody knew except him (i.e., Hudhayfah ibn al-Yamān)." They also narrated that ‘Umar asked Hudhayfah about Fitnah (the trial). Hudhayfah participated in the conquests of Iraq and died in 36 AH.

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Al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is Al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib al-Hāshimi al-Qurashi Abu Muhammad, the Prophet's grandson. He was born in 3 AH. He was the fifth and the last of the Rāshidūn Caliphs. He was born in Madīnah and his mother was Fātimah az-Zahrā’, daughter of the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). He was her oldest and first child. He was prudent, patient, benevolent, eloquent, and one of the best in terms of logic and intuition. He performed Hajj on foot twenty times. He renounced the caliphate and handed it over to Mu‘āwiyah in 41 AH, which was called the Year of Al-Jamā‘ah (union) on account of the gathering of Muslims under one caliph. Al-Hasan, then, left to Madīnah where he stayed until he died poisoned, according to one opinion. His caliphate lasted for six months and five days and he died in 50 AH.

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Khabbāb ibn al-Aratt (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Khabbāb ibn al-Aratt ibn Jandalah at-Tamīmi, or al-Khuzā‘i, Abu ‘Abdullah. He was an honorable Companion. He was taken as captive during the pre-Islamic era of ignorance and was sold in Makkah. He became the slave of Umm Anmār al-Khuzā‘iyyah, or someone else, then he became an ally of Banu Zahrah. He was one of the first forerunners. He witnessed Badr and the following battles. It was proven in the two Sahīhs that he used to make swords in the pre-Islamic era. He died in 37 AH.

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Rāfi‘ ibn Khadīj al-Ansāri al-Awsi (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is Rāfi‘ ibn Khadīj ibn ‘Adiyy ibn al-Ansāri al-Awsi. He was an honorable Companion. On the Day of Badr, he was presented to the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) who thought he was too young to join them. However, he permitted him to participate with them in the Battle of Uhud and he witnessed the following battles. He narrated from the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him), and he died in 74 AH.

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Ruwayfi‘ ibn Thābit al-Ansāri (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Ruwayfi‘ ibn Thābit ibn as-Sakan from Banu Mālik ibn an-Najjār. He was an honorable Companion. He went to Egypt and Mu‘āwiyah appointed him the ruler of of Tripoli in 46 AH. He invaded Africa. He narrated Hadīths on the Prophet's authority and died in Cyrenaica, which was under his rule, in 56 AH.

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Al-Hasan al-Basri

He is Al-Hasan ibn Yasār al-Basri, Abu Sa‘īd. He was a Tābi‘i (a Muslim who met a Companion of the Prophet and died as a Muslim), a reliable jurist, and a Mukthir (a narrator whose narrations of Hadīth are large in number). He was born in Madīnah in 21 AH. He was the Imam of the people of Basrah, and Habr of al-Ummah (the most prominent scholar of the Ummah) at his time. He was an insightful,eloquent, brave, and an ascetic scholar. He lived in Basrah. He was highly esteemed; hence, he used to enter upon the rulers enjoining goodness and forbidding evil, fearing no reproach from any critic. He stood up against Al-Hajjāj ibn Yūsuf in a number of situations, but he remained safe from his harm. When ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul-‘Azīz was appointed caliph, he wrote him a message saying: "I have been afflicted with this (ruling) issue; so, find me assistants who can help me with it." Al-Hasan replied saying: "As for those who seek the worldly life, you do not want to them (to be your assistants), and as for those who seek the Hereafter, they do not want you. So, seek help from Allah." He died in 110 AH.

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Umm Harām bint Milhān (may Allah be pleased with her)

She is Umm Harām bint Milhān bint Khālid ibn Zayd ibn Harām ibn Jundab al-Ansāriyyah. It was authentically reported from Anas on the authority of Umm Harām bint Milhān, who was his maternal aunt, that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) once took a nap in her house and woke up smiling and said: "Some people of my Ummah were shown to me (in my dream) fighting in the way of Allah, sailing in the middle of the green sea like kings on the thrones." She said: "O Messenger of Allah, supplicate Allah to make me from them." He said: "You will be among the first ones." She was then married to ‘Ubādah ibn as-Sāmit, who took her with him in Jihad and after crossing the sea, she rode a horse from which she fell off and died in 27 AH.

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Hassān ibn Thābit

He is Hassān ibn Thābit ibn al-Mundhir ibn Harām al-Ansāri al-Khazraji, then an-Najjāri. He was the Prophet's poet and was nicknamed 'Abu al-Walīd', which was his most famous nickname, and 'Abu al-Mudarrab', 'Abu al-Husām', and 'Abu ‘Abdur-Rahmān'. It is authentically reported that the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) set up a pulpit for Hassān in his mosque to stand upon it while satirizing those who used to satirize the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "The Holy Spirit (Jibrīl) supports Hassān as long as he defends the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him)." Ibn Sa‘d said: "He (Hassān) lived sixty years in the pre-Islamic era of ignorance and sixty years in Islam, and died at the age of one hundred and twenty in 54 AH."

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Umm Hakīm bint al-Hārith (may Allah be pleased with her)

She is Umm Hakīm bint al-Hārith ibn Hishām ibn al-Mughīrah al-Makhzūmiyyah. She was an honorable female Companion. She witnessed the Battle of Uhud on the polytheists' side, then she embraced Islam on the day of the Conquest of Makkah. Her husband, ‘Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl fled to Yemen; so, she went to him, after taking the Prophet's permission, and he returned with her and embraced Islam. Later, she set out with him to fight the Romans and he was martyred. Then, she was married to Khālid ibn Sa‘īd ibn al-‘Ās just before the Battle of Marj as-Saffar, south of Damascus. When he was martyred in this battle, she got dressed and set out to fight with traces of perfume still on her. They fought by the river near a bridge that was later on named after Umm Hakīm. She killed seven of the Romans with the pole of the tent where Khālid had consummated the marriage with her, and she was killed in 14 AH.

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Hafsah bint ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb (may Allah be pleased with her and her father)

She is the Mother of the Believers, Hafsah bint ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb, the Commander of the Believers. Before being married to the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him), she was the wife of Khunays ibn Hudhāfah. Abu ‘Umar said: "The Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) divorced her once and then returned her because Jibrīl (Gabriel) said to him: 'Return Hafsah, for she fasts and prays frequently and she will be your wife in Paradise." She bequeathed to his brother with what ‘Umar bequeathed to her, as she dedicated a charity in Al-Ghābah. She died in 45 AH.

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Zayd ibn Khālid al-Juhani (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Zayd ibn Khālid al-Juhani, Abu Zur‘ah or Abu ‘Abdur-Rahmān or Abu Talhah. He was an honorable Companion. He narrated Hadīth from the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). He witnessed the Treaty of Al-Hudaybiyah, and was carrying the banner of Juhaynah on the day of the Conquest of Makkah. His Hadīth are in the two Sahīh Collections and in other books of Hadīth. He died in 78 AH.

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As-Sā’ib ibn Yazīd (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is As-Sā’ib ibn Yazīd ibn Sa‘īd al-Kindi. He was an honorable Companion. He was born just before the first year of Hijrah. He was with his father during the Prophet's Farewell Hajj. He was once sick and his maternal aunt took him to the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) who wiped over his head and supplicated for him and performed ablution and made him drink some of that water; so, he was cured. He saw the Prophet's seal of prophethood. ‘Umar appointed him to supervise the market of Madīnah and he was the last among the Companions who died there as he died in 91 AH.

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Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqās (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqās Mālik ibn Uhayb - or ibn Wuhayb - ibn ‘Abd Manāf ibn Zuhrah ibn Kilāb al-Qurashi az-Zuhari Abu Is-hāq. He was an honorable Companion; and one of the ten who were given the glad tidings of Paradise and was the last to die among them. He was one of the knights and the first to shoot an arrow in the cause of Allah. He was one of the six whom the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) used to consult. His supplications were always answered and he was known for that. He conquered Ctesiphon and chose to stay aloof during the time of Fitnah (civil war). He died in 55 AH.

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Hakīm ibn Hizām (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Hakīm ibn Hizām ibn Khuwaylid ibn Asad ibn ‘Abd al-‘Uzza ibn Qusayy al-Asadi. He was an honorable Companion and among the seniors of the Quraysh. He was a friend of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) before his mission as a prophet, and after becoming a prophet, he continued to love him and maintained a friendly relation with him. However, he did not embrace Islam early; he embraced it in the Year of the Conquest. He asked the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) saying: "Shall I receive reward for the (good) deeds I used to do during the pre-Islamic era of ignorance?" The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) replied saying: "You have embraced Islam with all those good deeds that you did." He died in 54 AH.

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Khālid ibn al-Walīd (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Khālid ibn al-Walīd ibn al-Mughīrah ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar ibn Makhzūm al-Qurashi al-Makhzūmi, Sayfullah (the Sword of Allah), Abu Sulaymān. He was an honorable Companion. He was one of the nobles of the Quraysh in the pre-Islamic era of ignorance. He participated with the disbelievers of the Quraysh in their wars against the Muslims until the ‘Umrah of Al-Hudaybiyah. Then, in the seventh year after the Battle of Khaybar, he embraced Islam, and it was said that he embraced Islam before that. He fought along with the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) in the Conquest of Makkah and showed great courage. He then took part in the battles of Hunayn and At-Tā’if. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) also sent him to demolish the idol of Al-‘Uzza and he did. Praising him, the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "What an excellent slave of Allah and a brother of the tribe Khālid ibn al-Walīd is! He is a sword of Allah unsheathed against the disbelievers." He died in 21 AH.

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Abu Ayyūb al-Ansāri (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Khālid ibn Zayd ibn Kulayb ibn Tha‘labah, Abu Ayyūb al-Ansāri, from Banu An-Najjār. He was an honorable Companion. He witnessed the ‘Aqabah Pledge, the Battle of Badr, Uhud, Al-Khandaq (the Trench), and the rest of battles. He was brave, patient, pious, and a devoted warrior who was fond of Jihad. He lived till he witnessed the reign of Banu Umayyah and was a resident of Madīnah. He, then, left to the Levant, and when Yazīd invaded Constantinople during his father's caliphate, Abu Ayyūb accompanied him. He witnessed the battles, but then he fell sick and asked to be carried into the depth of the enemies' land. When he died, he was buried under the Constantinople Fort in 52 AH.

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Khadījah bint Khuwaylid

She is Khadījah bint Khuwaylid ibn Asad ibn ‘Abd al-‘Uzza ibn Qusayy al-Qurashiyyah al-Asadiyyah, Mother of the Believers and wife of Prophet Muhammad (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). She was the first to believe in Allah and in His Messenger and in what he brought, who was a source of relief for the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). Every time he heard something that he disliked, he would return to her and she would always help him remain steadfast and alleviate his distress. It was narrated in the two Sahīhs that ‘Ā’ishah reported that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) gave Khadījah the glad tidings that she will have a palace in Paradise that is made up of a hollow pearl where there will be neither noise nor fatigue. She died in 3 AH.

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Umm Sulaym (may Allah be pleased with her)

She is Umm Sulaym bint Milhān ibn Khālid ibn Zayd al-Ansāriyyah, the mother of Anas and the sister of Umm Harām. She was an honorable female Companion. She narrated from the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). Her nickname was 'Al-Ghumaysā’' or 'Ar-Rumaysā’'. Her name was Sahlah, or Ramlah, or Rumaythah, or Unayfah, or Malīkah. It was authentically reported on the authority of Anas that the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "When I entered Paradise, I heard someone's footsteps. When I asked about who it was, it was explained to me that she was Al-Ghumaysā’ bint Milhān, mother of Anas ibn Mālik." Her house was the only house, beside his wives', that the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) used to visit in Madīnah. When he was asked about that, he replied: "I pity her as her brother was killed while being with me." In the pre-Islamic era of ignorance, she was married to Mālik ibn an-Nadr and gave birth to Anas. Then, she embraced Islam with her people and invited her husband to Islam, but he got angry with her and set out to the Levant and died. She died in 30 AH.

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Abu Sa‘īd al-Khudri (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Sa‘d ibn Mālik ibn Sinān al-Ansāri al-Khazraji al-Khudri and is known for his nickname. He was one of Al-Mukthirīn (Companions who narrated more than one thousand Hadīths each) and the first battle he witnessed was the Battle of the Trench. He fought along with the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) in twelve battles and he died in 74 AH.

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Sa‘īd ibn Zayd (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Sa‘īd ibn Zayd ibn ‘Amr ibn Nufayl ibn ‘Abd al-‘Uzza al-‘Adawi. He was an honorable Companion and one of the ten who were given the glad tidings of entering Paradise. He embraced Islam before the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) started making Da‘wah (calling people to Islam) in the house of Al-Arqam. He emigrated and witnessed Uhud and the following battles. However, he was not in Madīnah at the time of the Battle of Badr and that is why he did not witness it. He witnessed the Battle of Yarmūk and the Conquest of Damascus and died in 51 AH.

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Sufyān ibn ‘Uyaynah

He is Sufyān ibn ‘Uyaynah ibn Maymūn al-Hilāli, their freed slave, al-Kūfi Abu Muhammad. He was a scholar of Hadīth and Fiqh. He was born in 107 AH. He was the official scholar of Hadīth in the Makkan Sacred Mosque. He was born in Kufa, and lived and died in Makkah. He was a reliable Hāfizh (a high status in the science of Hadīth), a knowledgeable scholar, and was held in high esteem. Ash-Shāfi‘i said: "Had it not been for Mālik and Sufyān, the knowledge of Hijaz would have gone." He performed Hajj seventy times and died in 198 AH.

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Az-Zubayr ibn Al-‘Awwām (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Az-Zubayr ibn al-‘Awwām ibn Khuwaylid ibn Asad ibn ‘Abdul-‘Uzza ibn Qusayy ibn Kilāb al-Qurashi al-Asadi Abu ‘Abdullah. He was an honorable Companion and the Prophet's Hawāri (sincere supporter) and his paternal cousin. He was one of the ten who were given the glad tidings of Paradise and one of the six whom the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) used to consult. His paternal uncle used to roll him up in a mat and hang it up, and then he would light a fire underneath so that the smoke would reach him to force him to return to disbelief, but he used to say: "I will never go back to disbelief." ‘Urwah reported: "Az-Zubayr had three scars caused by the sword, in which I used to insert my fingers. He received two of those wounds on the Day of Badr and one on the Day of Al-Yarmūk." He was killed in 36 AH.

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Umm Habībah bint Abi Sufyān (may Allah be pleased with her)

She is the Mother of the Believers, Ramlah bint Abi Sufyān Sakhr ibn Harb al-Umawiyyah. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) married her in 6 AH. She emigrated with her husband, ‘Ubaydullah ibn Jahsh, to Abyssinia and when he divorced her, the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) married her. ‘Ā’ishah reported: "Umm Habībah invited me when she was on her deathbed and said: 'There used to be between us the kind of things that happen between co-wives, so forgive me', and I did and asked Allah to forgive her. She replied: 'You made me happy, may Allah make you happy.' She also invited Umm Salamah and told her the same thing." She died in Madīnah in 44 AH, and it was said otherwise.

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Zayd ibn Arqam (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Zayd ibn Arqam ibn Zayd ibn Qays al-Ansāri al-Khazraji. There are different opinions regarding his nickname; some say it is 'Abu ‘Umar' and others say it is 'Abu ‘Āmir'. He was an honorable Companion. He was considered too young to participate in the Battle of Uhud, and the first battle that he witnessed was the Battle of the Trench, or the Battle of Al-Muraysī‘. It was authentically reported that he fought along with the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) in seventeen battles. He narrated many Hadīths. There is an incident related to him regarding the revelation of Surat al-Munāfiqūn as mentioned in the Sahīh. He witnessed the Battle of Siffīn with ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) and died in Kufa during the rule of Al-Mukhtār in 68 AH.

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Zayd ibn Thābit al-Ansāri (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Zayd ibn Thābit ibn ad-Dahhāk al-Ansāri al-Khazraji, Abu Khārijah. He was one of the senior Companions and the scribe of the revelation. He was born in Madīnah eleven years before Hijrah. He grew up in Makkah and his father was killed when he was six. At the age of eleven, he emigrated with the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). He learned and studied the religion of Islam and became the head of judiciary, Fatwa, Qura’nic recitation, and inheritance laws in Madīnah. He died in 45 AH and Abu Hurayrah commented on his death saying: "Today the scholar of this Ummah died and may Allah make Ibn ‘Abbās his successor."

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Zayd ibn Hārithah

He is Zayd ibn Hārithah ibn Sharāhīl or Shurahbīl al-Kalbi. He was an honorable Companion. He was kidnapped when he was little during the pre-Islamic era. Khadījah bint Khuwaylid purchased him and gave him as a gift to the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) when he married her. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) adopted him and set him free and gave him his paternal cousin in marriage. People kept calling him 'Zayd ibn Muhammad' until the following verse was revealed: {Call them [adopted sons] after their real fathers}. He was one of the earliest who embraced Islam among the Companions. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) used to appoint him as the leader of every expedition that he was sent in. He used to love and prefer him over others. He made him the leader in the Battle of Mu’tah where he was martyred in 8 AH.

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Salmān al-Fārisi (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Salmān al-Fārisi, an honorable Companion who used to call himself 'Salmān al-Islām'. He was originally from the Magians of Isfahan. He was physically strong and was known for his sound opinions and for his knowledge of religions and others. He was the one who guided the Muslims to dig a trench in the Battle of Ahzāb (confederates). He was highly esteemed to the extent that both the Emigrants and the Supporters said that Salmān was one of them; nonetheless, the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) put an end to that argument by saying: "Salmān is one of us, the people of the Prophet's household." He lived a long life and died in 36 AH.

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Salamah ibn al-Akwa‘ (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Salamah ibn al-Akwa‘ al-Aslami Abu ‘Āmir and Abu Muslim, and it is said: Abu Iyās, al-Hijāzi al-Madani. He was an honorable Companion. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "The best of our horsemen is Abu Qatādah and the best of our ground soldiers is Salamah." When ‘Uthmān was killed, Salamah went to Ar-Rabadhah where he married a woman and had children from her. Few nights before his death, he went to Madīnah and died there in 74 AH.

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Abu Dāwūd

He is Abu Dāwūd Sulaymān ibn al-Ash‘ath ibn Is-hāq ibn Bashīr al-Azdi as-Sijistāni. He is a famous Imam and the author of 'As-Sunan Collection'. He was one of the Shaykhs of At-Tirmidhi and one of the students of Ahmad. He was born in 202 AH and among his compilations are: 'Al-Marāsīl' and 'Al-Qadar'. He died in 275 AH.

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Sahl ibn Hunayf (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Sahl ibn Hunayf al-Ansāri al-Awsi, nicknamed 'Abu Sa‘d' and 'Abu ‘Abdullah'. He was one of the forerunners and among the Muslim fighters in Badr. He remained steadfast in Uhud when others retreated and he took the pledge of death that day. He kept defending the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) with darts; hence, the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Provide Sahl with darts for, indeed, he is Sahl." He also witnessed the Battle of the Trench and all the other battles. ‘Ali made him his successor in Basrah after the Battle of the Camel; then, Sahl joined him in the Battle of Siffīn. He died in 38 AH.

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Abu Talhah al-Ansāri (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Abu Talhah al-Ansāri Zayd ibn Sahl ibn al-Aswad an-Najjāri. He was an honorable Companion with numerous virtues. He was one of the few courageous archers in the pre-Islamic era and in Islam. He was born in Madīnah. He witnessed Al-‘Aqabah Pledge and the Battles of Badr, Uhud, the Trench, and all the other battles. He was known for his loud voice; the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Indeed, the voice of Abu Talhah in the army is better than a thousand men." He rode behind the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) on the day of Khaybar. There are many different opinions regarding the year of his death; it was said that he died in 32 AH, 33 AH, 34 AH, 50 AH, or 51 AH.

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Sālim, the freed slave of Abu Hudhayfah

He is Sālim, the freed slave of Abu Hudhayfah. He was an honorable Companion; one of the first forerunners who were the nearest to Allah and who witnessed the Battle of Badr and who were knowledgeable. When he came to Madīnah, he used to lead the Muhājirūn (emigrants) who came from Makkah in prayer because he was the most knowledgeable of Qur’an among them. ‘Umar said: "Had one of these two men: Sālim the freed slave of Abu Hudhayfah and Abu ‘Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrāh, been alive and succeeded me (in ruling the Muslims), I would have trusted him," as they both died during his lifetime. He died in 12 AH.

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Sa‘īd ibn al-Musayyib (may Allah have mercy upon him)

He is Abu Muhammad Sa‘īd ibn al-Musayyib ibn Hazn al-Qurashi al-Makhzūmi. He was an eminent Imam and a prominent Tābi‘i (a Muslim who met a Companion of the Prophet and died as a Muslim). He was born in 13 AH and was the scholar of the people of Madīnah and the master of the Tābi‘is at his time. He said: "I have never missed the prayer in congregation for forty years." He also said: "No one knows a judgment passed by the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him), or by Abu Bakr, or by ‘Umar better than me." During his lifetime, he was given precedence in issuing Fatwa and was called 'Faqīh al-Fuqahā’' (the most knowledgeable of the scholars of Fiqh). He also said: "The devil never despairs of anything except that he overcomes it by means of women." He died in 93 or 94 AH.

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Sa‘īd ibn Jubayr (may Allah have mercy upon him)

He is Sa‘īd ibn Jubayr ibn Hishām al-Wālibi, their freed slave, Abu Muhammad - or Abu ‘Abdullah - al-Asadi al-Kūfi. He was an Imam, Hāfizh (a memorizer of the Qur’an), Muqri’ (a teacher of the recitation rules of the Qur’an), and Mufassir (an interpretor of the Qur’an). He was a Tābi‘i who was born in 45 AH. When he was in Isfahan, he did not spread his knowledge, but on returning to Kufa, he used to spread his knowledge to people. On being asked about that, he said: "Spread your commodity (referring to his knowledge) where you are known." Ibn ‘Abbas would say, when being asked for Fatwa by the people of Kufa: "Is not Ibn Umm ad-Dahmā’ among you?" He meant Sa‘īd ibn Jubayr. He used to cry at night until he became bleary-eyed. He was killed by Al-Hajjāj in 95 AH.

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Sufyān ath-Thawri

He is Sufyān ibn Sa‘īd ibn Masrūq ath-Thawri Abu ‘Abdullah al-Kūfi. He was a Mujtahid (a scholar who is able to deduce rulings, according to the established conditions), a scholar of Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), a Muhaddith (scholar of Hadīth) and an Imam. He was born in 97 AH. Yahya al-Qattān said: "None is dearer to me than Shu‘bah and none is equal to him in my sight. However, if Sufyān differs with him (in opinion), I adopt Sufyān's opinion." A man once looked at him while he was holding dinars in his hand and said: "O Abu ‘Abdullah, you hold dinars in your hand?" He replied: "Keep silent, were it not for them, the kings would use us as handkerchief." He died in 161 AH.

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Sahl ibn Sa‘d as-Sā‘idi (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is Sahl ibn Sa‘d ibn Mālik al-Ansāri as-Sā‘idi. He was an honorable and a prominent Companion. It was said that his name was 'Hazan' and the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) changed it. Az-Zuhri said: "When the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) died, he (Sahl) was fifteen years old." According to one opinion, he was the last to die from the Companions in Madīnah, in the year 91 AH.

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Abu Ya‘la Shaddād ibn Aws (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Shaddād ibn Aws ibn Thābit ibn al-Mundhir ibn Harām Abu Y‘la and Abu ‘Abdur-Rahmān al-Ansāri An-Najjāri al-Khazraji. He was an honorable Companion; one of the most virtuous among them and a scholar. He stayed in Jerusalem and was a devout worshiper and a hard worker. He was endowed with knowledge and tolerance. He died in 58 AH.

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As-Sa‘b ibn Jaththāmah (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is As-Sa‘b ibn Jaththāmah ibn Qays ibn Rabī‘ah ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Ya‘mar al-Laythi, the ally of the Quraysh. He lived in Waddān and the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) established bond of brotherhood between him and ‘Awf ibn Mālik. He died almost is 25 AH.

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Shu‘bah ibn al-Hajjāj

He is Shu‘bah ibn al-Hajjāj ibn al-Ward Abu Bistām al-Azdi al-‘Ataki, their freed slave, al-Wāsiti, the Imam and the memorizer, Amīr al-Muminīn fi al-Hadīth (the commander of the believers in Hadīth). He was born in 82 AH. He was the renowned scholar of the people of Basrah and their eminent Shaykh. He was highly knowledgeable and the best scholar of Hadīth at his time. He was an expert, a critic, a righteous, ascetic, and content person. He was the top in terms of knowledge and work. He died in 160 AH.

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Prophet Sālih

Sālih (peace be upon him) was an Arab prophet from Banu Thamūd, who are also called 'the People of al-Hijr', which refers to their country that is now known as 'Madā’in Sālih', named after Prophet Sālih. He came after Nūh (Noah) and Hūd (Heber) and was sent to guide his people. However, they belied him, except few of them, and they were, thus, seized by the blast.

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Sawdah bint Zam‘ah

She is Sawdah bint Zam‘ah ibn Qays ibn ‘Abd Shams al-Qurashiyyah al-‘Āmiriyyah, Mother of the Believers. She was first married to As-Sakrān ibn ‘Amr, brother of Suhayl ibn ‘Amr, and when he died, the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) married her. She was the first woman he married after Khadījah. She was afraid that the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) might divorce her; hence, she asked him not to divorce her and to give her turn to ‘Ā’ishah and he did. As a result, the following verse was revealed: {There is no blame on them to reach an amicable reconciliation between themselves, for reconciliation is best.} It was reported that ‘Ā’ishah said: "There is no woman I would like to imitate save Sawdah bint Zam‘ah, but she had some kind of harshness that she used to repent of quickly."

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At-Tufayl ibn ‘Amr ad-Dawsi (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is At-Tufayl ibn ‘Amr ibn Tarīf ibn al-‘Ās ibn Tha‘labah ad-Dawsi. He was an honorable Companion who came to the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) and said: "O Messenger of Allah, Daws has, indeed, disobeyed (Allah), so supplicate Allah against them." Thereupon, the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "O Allah, guide Daws." He embraced Islam in Makkah, then he returned to his people. After that, he met the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) during Al-Qadiyyah (litigation) ‘Umrah and witnessed the Conquest in Makkah. He died in 11 AH.

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Abu Sufyān Sakhr ibn Harb (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Sakhr ibn Harb ibn Umayyah ibn ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Abd Manāf, Abu Sufyān al-Qurashi al-’Umawi. He was known for his name and nickname. He was also nicknamed 'Abu Hanzhalah'. He was born ten years before the Year of the Elephant. He embraced Islam in the year of the Conquest of Makkah. He witnessed the battles of Hunayn and At-Tā’if. He was one of Al-Mu’allafat al-Qulūb (those whose hearts were being attracted [to Islam]); however, before that he was the chief of the polytheists in the battles of ’Uhud and Al-Ahzāb (the Confederates). The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) married his daughter, Umm Habībah who was among the early Muslims, before Abu Sufyān embraced Islam. He died during the caliphate of ‘Uthmān (may Allah be pleased with him) in 31 or 34 AH.

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Abu Umāmah al-Bāhili (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Abu Umāmah al-Bāhili Sudayy ibn ‘Ajlān ibn al-Hārith, or ibn Wahb, or ibn ‘Amr ibn Wahb ibn ‘Arīb ibn Wahb ibn Riyāh ibn al-Hārith ibn Ma‘n ibn Mālik ibn A‘sar. He was famous for his nickname. He said: "When the verse of {Indeed, Allah was pleased with the believers when they pledged allegiance to you [O Prophet] under the tree} was revealed, I said: 'O Messenger of Allah, I am one of those who pledged allegiance to you under the tree.' He replied: 'You are from me and I am from you.'" He died in 81 AH.

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Safiyyah bint Huyayy (may Allah be pleased with her)

She is Safiyyah bint Huyayy ibn Akhtab, Mother of the Believers, from Banu an-Nadīr. She was from the granddaughters of Lāw (Levi), son of Ya‘qūb (Jacob), and from the descendants of Hārūn (Aaron) ibn ‘Imrān, the brother of Mūsa (Moses) (peace be upon them both), and the wife of Prophet Muhammad (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). She died in 50 AH.

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Abu al-Fadl al-‘Abbās ibn ‘Abdul-Muttalib (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Abu al-Fadl Al-‘Abbās ibn ‘Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hāshim ibn ‘Abd Manāf al-Qurashi al-Hāshimi. He was an honorable Companion and the paternal uncle of the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) and was two years older than him. In the pre-Islamic era, he was in charge of maintaining the Sacred Mosque and providing the pilgrims with water. Before embracing Islam, he witnessed the ‘Aqabah Pledge with the Ansār (the Supporters). He was forced to witness the Battle of Badr on the polytheists' side and was taken captive. He ransomed himself and his nephew, ‘Aqīl ibn Abi Tālib, and returned to Makkah. It is said that he secretly embraced Islam and used to send information to the the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). He emigrated just before the Conquest of Makkah, which he witnessed, and he remained steadfast on the Day of Hunayn. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Whoever hurts Al-‘Abbās has hurt me, for a person's uncle is like his father." He died in 32 AH.

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‘Abbād ibn Bishr

He is ‘Abbād ibn Bishr Waqsh al-Ash-hali. He was an honorable Companion and was of those who killed Ka‘b ibn al-Ashraf. It was reported in the Sahīh that the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said, on hearing the voice of ‘Abbād ibn Bishr: "O Allah, have mercy upon ‘Abbād." He died in 12 AH.

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‘Ubādah ibn as-Sāmit (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is ‘Ubādah ibn as-Sāmit ibn Qays al-Ansāri al-Khazraji Abu al-Walīd. He was an honorable Companion and one of the chiefs chosen to represent his tribe in the Pledge of Al-‘Aqabah. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) established bond of brotherhood between him and Abu Marthad al-Ghanawi. He witnessed all the battles after Badr and died in 34 AH.

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Ibn Rajab

He is Abu al-Faraj ‘Abdur-Rahmān ibn Ahmad ibn Rajab as-Salāmi al-Baghdādi then ad-Dimashqi. He was a scholar of Hadīth and a Hanbali scholar of Fiqh. He was Mutqin (a scholar with perfect accuracy) and an expert. He was born in 736 AH and was well acquainted with the sayings of the righteous predecessors. Among his authorship works are: 'Taqrīr al-Qawā‘id wa Tahrīr al-Fawā’id', 'Dhayl Tabaqāt Al-Hanābilah', 'Fat-h al-Bāri fi Sharh Sahīh Al-Bukhāri', 'Jāmi‘ al-‘Ulūm wa al-Hikam', which is a commentary on 'Al-Arba‘īn an-Nawawiyyah', and 'Sharh Jāmi‘ at-Tirmidhi'. He died in 795 AH.

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Al-Awzā‘i

He is ‘Abdur-Rahmān ibn ‘Amr ibn Yuhmad Abu ‘Amr al-Awzā‘i. He was an Imam and a scholar of Fiqh. He was born in 88 AH. He lived in Al-Awzā‘ area, which is the district of Al-‘Aqībah as-Saghīrah on the outside of Bāb al-Farādīs in Damascus, the most precious among them. He was reliable and he founded a famous and an independent school of Fiqh, which was adopted by the scholars of Fiqh in the Levant and in Al-Andalus for a period of time, but then it perished. One of his sayings reads: "Whoever adopts the scholars' rare opinions becomes an apostate." He died in 157 AH.

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‘Abdur-Rahmān ibn Samurah (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is ‘Abdur-Rahmān ibn Samurah ibn Habīb ibn ‘Abd Shams al-Qurashi Abu Sa‘īd. He was an honorable Companion. In the pre-Islamic era, his name was ‘Abd Kalāl but the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) changed it to ‘Abdur-Rahmān. He was a leader and a ruler. He embraced Islam on the day of the Conquest of Makkah and he witnessed the Battle of Mu’tah. He lived in Basrah and conquered Sijistān, Kabul, and others. He became the ruler of Sajistān and invaded Khurasān where he made many conquests. Then, he returned to Basrah where he died in 50 AH.

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Abu Hurayrah ‘Abdur-Rahmān ibn Sakhr ad-Dawsi (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Abu Hurayrah ‘Abdur-Rahmān ibn Sakhr ad-Dawsi. Ibn ‘Abdul-Barr said: "They held so many different opinions, that cannot be counted, regarding the name of Abu Hurayrah and that of his father in the pre-Islamic era and in Islam." He was an honorable Companion and the Musnid (one who narrates the Hadīth with its chain of transmission whether he knows the Hadīth or just narrates it) of Islam. He was the most prolific narrator of Hadīth among the Companions. He used to make Tasbīh (glorification of Allah) 12000 times daily. He was appointed the ruler of Madīnah many times, and he died in 57 or 59 AH.

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Ibn al-Jawzi

He is Abu al-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi ‘Abdur-Rahmān ibn ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn ‘Ubaydullah ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Hammādi, from the descendants of Abu Bakr as-Siddīq al-Qurashi at-Taymi al-Bakri al-Baghdādi al-Hanbali. He was born in 509 AH and was a knowledgeable Imam, Hāfizh (memorizer of the Qur’an), and an interpretor of the Qur’an. He authored many and various books. He was an expert in Tafsīr (interpretation of the Qur’an) and a master in biographies and history. He was known for his good knowledge of Hadīth. He was a scholar of Fiqh and was well acquainted with the scholars' opinions on which they unanimously agreed or differed. Abu al-Muzhaffar, his grandson, said: "I heard my grandfather once on the pulpit saying: 'With these two fingers of mine I wrote two thousand volumes, and I was the cause for the repentance of one hundred thousand person, and twenty thousand embraced Islam through me.'" He used to finish reading the Qur’an once every week. He preached people when he was a boy, and continued preaching sermons and gained a great fame and popularity for his preaching until he died in 597 AH.

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‘Abdur-Rahmān ibn ‘Awf (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is ‘Abdur-Rahmān ibn ‘Awf ibn ‘Abd ‘Awf ibn ‘Abd al-Hārith ibn Zuhrah ibn Kilāb al-Qurashi az-Zuhri, Abu Muhammad. He was an honorable Companion who was born ten years after the Year of the Elephant. He was one of the ten who were given the glad tidings of entering Paradise, and one of the six whom the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) used to consult and whom he died while being pleased with, as reported by ‘Umar. He was one of the early Muslims who embraced Islam before Da‘wah was made in the house of Al-Arqam. He emigrated twice and witnessed Badr and the rest of the battles. He bequeathed 400 dinars to those who witnessed the Battle of Badr, and they were one hundred men. He died in 32 AH.

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Ibn Abu Hātim

He is ‘Abdur-Rahmān ibn Muhammad Abu Hātim ibn Idrīs ibn al-Mundhir at-Tamīmi al-Hanzhali ar-Rāzi, Abu Muhammad. He was a prominent Muhaddith (a scholar of Hadīth). He was born in 240 AH. He was one of the great scholars of Hadīth. His house was in Darb Hanzhalah in Ray, after which he was called 'Al-Hanzhali'. He authored a number of books, which include 'Al-Jarh wa at-Ta‘dīl', 'At-Tafsīr', and 'Ar-Radd ‘ala al-Jahmiyyah'. He died in 327 AH.

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Ibn Sa‘di

He is ‘Abdur-Rahmān ibn Nāsir ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Sa‘di at-Tamīmi, from the people of Najd. He was a Hanbali scholar of Fiqh and an interpreter of the Qur’an. He was born in 1307 AH in ‘Unayzah in Al-Qasīm, and was the first to establish a library there. He died in the same city. His most prominent student was Shaykh Muhammad al-‘Uthaymīn. He wrote almost 30 books, some of which are: 'Taysīr al-Karīm ar-Rahmān fi Tafsīr Kalām al-Mannān', 'Taysīr al-Latīf al-Mannān fi Khulāsat Maqāsid al-Qur’ān', 'Al-Qawā‘id al-Hisān fi Tafsīr al-Qur’ān', 'Tarīq al-Wusūl ila al-‘Ilm al-Ma’mūl min al-Usūl', and 'Al-Adillah al-Qawāti‘ wa al-Barāhīn fi Ibtāl Usūl al-Mulhidīn'. He died in 1376 AH.

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Ash-Shātibi

He is Ibrāhīm ibn Mūsa ibn Muhammad Abu Is-hāq al-Lakhmi al-Gharnāti, known as Ash-Shātibi. He was known for his nickname 'Abu Is-hāq'. He was an Usūli scholar of Fiqh (specialized in studying the fundamentals of Fiqh) and an interpretor of the Qur’an. According to the most predominant opinion, he was born in Granada because he grew up there and it was not reported that he had ever left it. Scholars normally travel in pursuit of knowledge, but as for Ash-Shātibi, he did not travel because knowledge was available in his city. He died in 790 AH.

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Arwa bint al-Hārith (may Allah be pleased with her)

She is Arwa bint al-Hārith ibn ‘Abdul-Muttalib al-Qurashiyyah, the Prophet's paternal cousin and the sister of Abu Sufyān ibn al-Hārith. She was famous for her eloquence and she was mentioned by Ibn Sa‘d among the female Companions. She died around 50 AH.

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Asmā’ bint Abi Bakr as-Siddīq (may Allah be pleased with her and her father)

She is Umm ‘Abdullah, Asmā’ bint Abi Bakr ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Quhāfah ‘Uthmān at-Taymiyyah. She was an honorable female Companion, the daughter of Abu Bakr as-Siddīq, the wife of Az-Zubayr ibn al-‘Awwām, the mother of ‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr, and the sister of ‘Ā’ishah, the Mother of the Believers. She was known as 'Dhātul-Nitāqayn' (one with two pieces of cloth). She was the last to die among the female Emigrants. She narrated several Hadīths and lived for long. She became blind at the end of her life and died in 73 AH.

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Ubayy ibn Ka‘b (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Abu al-Mundhir and Abu at-Tufayl Ubayy ibn Ka‘b ibn Qays ibn ‘Ubayd al-Ansāri al-Khazraji. He was an honorable Companion and one of the scholars among the Companions. ‘Umar said: "Ubayy is the master of the Muslims." The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said to him: "O Abu al-Mundhir, do you know which verse is the greatest in the Book of Allah?" He said: "Allah and His Messenger know best." The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) repeated the question, and Abu al-Mundhir replied saying: "It is: {Allah: none has the right to be worshiped except Him, the Ever-Living, All-Sustaining}." The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him), thus, struck him on the chest and said: "By Allah, may knowledge delight and benefit you, O Abu al-Mundhir." Moreover, the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Allah has commanded me to recite the following to you: {Those who disbelieve from the People of the Book}." He said: "Did He mention my name?" The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Yes." Thereupon, he (Ubayy ibn Ka‘b) wept. There are many different opinions regarding the year in which he died; it was said he died in 19, or 20, or 32 AH.

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Ibn Taymiyyah

He is Ahmad ibn ‘Abdul-Halīm ibn ‘Abdus-Salām ibn Taymiyyah al-Harrāni, Shaykh al-Islam. He was an Imam, Mujtahid (a scholar who is able to deduce rulings according to the established conditions), and Mujaddid (reviver). He was born in 661 AH. He was an expert in both branches of knowledge: the textual and the rational. He was the epitome of intelligence and perceptiveness. He disliked being called 'Taqiyy ad-Dīn'; however, he was famous with this name and with 'Shaykh al-Islam'. The knowledgeable scholar, Ibn Daqīq al-‘Īd, said about him: "On meeting Ibn Taymiyyah, I saw a man with all knowledge before his eyes, picking therefrom what he wanted and leaving therefrom what he wanted." Also, Al-Hāfizh ibn Hajar said about him: "He studied Fiqh and became skillful and distinguished. He achieved progress and composed books. He studied and gave Fatwa. He surpassed all his peers and became a miracle in the speed of recalling information, the strength of the heart, the elaboration on the transmitted and rational knowledge, and the deep knowledge of the doctrines of the early and later scholars." He authored so many books which made Adh-Dhahabi say: "His works at that time could be 4000 books or more." Examples of his books include: 'Dar’ Ta‘ārud al-‘Aql wa an-Naql', 'Minhāj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah', 'Al-Istiqāmah', 'Al-Jawāb as-Sahīh Liman Baddal Dīn al-Masīh', 'Bayān Talbīs al-Jahmiyyah', and 'Iqtidā’ as-Sirāt al-Mustaqīm Li Mukhālafat As-Hāb al-Jahīm'. He died in 728 AH.

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Ahmad ibn Hanbal

He is Abu ‘Abdullah Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hanbal ash-Shaybāni al-Imām. He was born in 164 AH. He is one of the renowned Imams of Islam and his reports are famous and so many. Imam Ash-Shāfi‘i said about him: "Ahmad is an Imam (leader) in eight: he is an Imam in Hadīth, an Imam in Fiqh, and Imam in language, an Imam in the Qur’an, and Imam in poverty, an Imam in asceticism, and Imam in religious prudence, and an Imam in the Sunnah." His stance during the Fitnah (trial) of the Creation of the Qur’an showed his knowledge and patience to the extent that he was called 'the Imam of Ahl-us-Sunnah', i.e., he demonstrated the Sunnah at the time when the religious innovations were widespread. This meaning applies to all those who are from the Imams of Sunnah. However, the title 'Imams of the religious innovations' refers to those who introduced such religious+ innovations. Therefore, the Sunnah is attributed to its Imams who helped in circulating and spreading it; whereas, the religious innovations are attributed to their Imams who invented and introduced them. Some of his authorships include: 'Al-Musnad', 'Az-Zuhd', 'Al-Ashribah', 'Risālah fi al-Musī’ Salātih', 'Ar-Radd ‘ala az-Zanādiqah wa al-Jahmiyyah', etc. His followers reported around sixty thousand issues on his authority and his school of Fiqh (doctrine) is well-established in the fundamental and subsidiary issues. He died in 241 AH.

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Osama ibn Zayd ibn Hārithah (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is Osama ibn Zayd ibn Hārithah ibn Sharāhīl ibn ‘Abdul-‘Uzza ibn Imri’ al-Qays al-Kalbi. He was an honorable Companion, the freed slave, and the great leader. He was the beloved of the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) and the son of his beloved, and his freed slave and the son of his freed slave. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) appointed him the leader of an army, in which there were ‘Umar and other senior Companions, to invade the Levant. He did not proceed with his mission because of the Prophet's death; however, As-Sidīq hastened to send them on their mission. It was confirmed that Osama said: "The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) used to take me and Al-Hasan and say: 'O Allah, I love them; so, love them." He died in 54 AH.

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Asmā’ bint ‘Umays (may Allah be pleased with her)

She is Asmā’ bint ‘Umays ibn Ma‘d - or Ma‘bad - ibn al-Hārith al-Khath‘amiyyah, nicknamed 'Umm ‘Abdullah'. She was an honorable female Companion and the maternal half-sister of Maymūnah bint al-Hārith. She was first married to Ja‘far ibn Abi Tālib, then after his death, she was married to Abu Bakr as-Siddīq, after whose death she got married to ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib. They had children from her. She emigrated to Abyssinia then to Madīnah; hence, she was called 'Sāhibat al-Hijratayn' (one who emigrated twice). She died after ‘Ali.

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Al-Ash‘ath ibn Qays (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Al-Ash‘ath ibn Qays ibn Ma‘di Karib ibn Mu‘āwiyah al-Kindi. He was a Companion who embraced Islam in the Year of the Delegations. Before Islam, He was one of the kings of Kindah and his name was 'Ma‘di Karib'. His hair was always disheveled; so, he was given that nickname (Al-Ash‘ath). He (may Allah be pleased with him) died in 40 AH in Kufa and Al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him and his father) offered the funeral prayer over him.

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‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Abu Hafs ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb ibn ‘Abdul-‘Uzza al-Qurashi al-‘Adawi, the Commander of the Believers, Al-Fārūq. He was one of the early Emigrants, one of the participants in the Ridwān Pledge, and one of the ten who were given the glad tidings of Paradise. He participated in all the battles. He was the vizier of Abu Bakr, who entrusted him with the caliphate after him. He was the first caliph to be called 'the Commander of the Believers'. None of the Companions, inside or outside Madīnah, refused to give pledge allegiance to him. He died in 22 AH.

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Usayd ibn Hudayr (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Usayd ibn al-Hudayr ibn Simāk ibn ‘Atīk ibn Nāfi‘ ibn Imri’ al-Qays ibn Zayd ibn ‘Abdul-Ash-hal Abu Yahya - and it was said: Abu ‘Atīk - al-Ansāri al-Awsi al-Ash-hali. He was an honorable Companion and one of the twelve chiefs chosen to represent their tribes on the night of Al-‘Aqabah Pledge. He was one of the early Muslims and was counted among the rational notables and those whose opinion was highly appreciated. His voice in reciting the Qur’an was one of the best. When he died in 20 AH, ‘Umar carried his bier until he laid him down in Al-Baqī‘ and offered the funeral prayer over him.

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‘Ammār ibn Yāsir (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is ‘Ammār ibn Yāsir Abu al-Yaqzhān al-‘Ansi al-Makki, the freed slave of Banu Makhzūm, the great Imam, and an honorable Companion. He was one of the first forerunners. His mother was Sumayyah, the freed female slave of Banu Makhzūm, who was also one of the great female Companions. ‘Ammār was severely tortured in the cause of Allah Almighty. He witnessed the Battle of Badr and all the following battles along with the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). He emigrated first to Abyssinia, then to Madīnah. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) gave him and his parents the glad tidings of Paradise. He was killed by the transgressing group in the Battle of Siffīn in 37 AH.

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‘Umar ibn Abi Salamah (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is ‘Umar ibn Abi Salamah ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abdul-Asad ibn Hilāl ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar ibn Makhzūm Abu Hafs al-Qurashi al-Makhzūmi, the Prophet's stepson. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) was his foster uncle. He was born two years or more before Hijrah, and he died during the caliphate of ‘Abdul-Malik ibn Marwān.

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Abu Mihjan ath-Thaqafi (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is ‘Amr ibn Habīb ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Umayr ibn ‘Awf, Abu Mihjan ath-Thaqafi. He was an honorable Companion and one of the heroic and generous poets both in the pre-Islamic era and in Islam. He embraced Islam in 9 AH and narrated several Hadīths. He was totally indulged in drinking; hence, ‘Umar repeatedly applied the Hadd (corporal punishment prescribed by Allah) on him, then, he banished him to an island in the sea. However, Abu Mihjan escaped and joined Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqās in Al-Qādisiyyah while the latter was fighting the Persians. ‘Umar, thus, wrote to Sa‘d ordering him to lock him up and Sa‘d locked him up. One day during the Battle of Al-Qādisiyyah, the fight grew fierce; so, Abu Mihjan asked Salma, Sa‘d's wife, to untie him and promised to return if he survived. He recited poetic verses related to this situation; thus, Salma set him free. He showed extreme courage in fighting, then, after the battle he returned to his prison. Salma informed Sa‘d of what had taken place and on hearing that, Sa‘d set him free and said: "I shall never apply Hadd on you." Thereupon, Abu Mihjan replied: "And by Allah, I shall never drink it (alcohol) again." He never drank it again until he died in Azerbaijan or Gorgan in 30 AH.

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‘Amr ibn al-‘Ās (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is ‘Amr ibn al-‘Ās ibn Wā’il al-Qurashi as-Sahmi al-Imām Abu ‘Abdullah, and it is said: Abu Muhammad. He was an honorable Companion; the shrewd man of the Quraysh and the man of the world; the epitome of sagacity and firmness. He emigrated, as a Muslim, to the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) at the beginning of year 8 AH, along with Khālid ibn al-Walīd and ‘Uthmān ibn Talhah, the Hājib (gatekeeper) of the Ka‘bah. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) was happy to see them and to know that they had embraced Islam. He appointed ‘Amr as leader of some of the armies. It was authentically reported from Abu ‘Uthmān an-Nahdi that ‘Amr was appointed leader of the army of the Battle of Chains by the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him), in which Abu Bakr and ‘Umar were among the participants. He died in 42 AH.

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Ibn Umm Maktūm

He is Ibn Umm Maktūm. According to the majority, his name is ‘Amr, and it was said: ‘Abdullah. He is Ibn Qays ibn Zā’idah al-Qurashi al-‘Āmiri. His mother, Umm Kulthūm, is ‘Ātikah al-Makhzūmiyyah. He was an honorable Companion and he was blind. He embraced Islam in Makkah and emigrated to Madīnah after the Battle of Badr. He used to make Adhan for the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) in Madīnah along with Bilāl. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) used to make him his successor in Madīnah in most of his battles. He narrated from the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). He witnessed the Battle of Qādisiyyah while holding a black banner and wearing a full armor and he fought despite being blind. After that, he returned to Madīnah where he died just before the death of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb, and it was said that he died in Al-Qādisiyyah in 15 AH.

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‘Awf ibn Mālik al-Ashja‘i (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is ‘Awf ibn Mālik ibn Abi ‘Awf al-Ashja‘i al-Ghatafāni. He was an honorable Companion. He embraced Islam before the Battle of Hunayn, but Al-Wāqidi said: "He embraced Islam in the year of the Battle of Khaybar, which he witnessed". He was one of those who witnessed the Conquest of Makkah and the Battle of Mu’tah.

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Umm Hāni’ (may Allah be pleased with her)

She is Umm Hāni’, daughter of the Prophet's uncle, Abu Tālib ‘Abd Manāf ibn ‘Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hāshim al-Qurashiyyah, the virtuous lady. Her name is Fākhitah, and it was said: Hind. She was an honorable female Companion who embraced Islam on the Day of the Conquest. She narrated several Hadīths from the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) and lived long after ‘Ali.

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Fātimah bint Qays (may Allah be pleased with her)

Fātimah bint Qays al-Fihriyyah is Fātimah bint Qays ibn Khālid al-Akbar ibn Wahb, sister of Ad-Dahhāk ibn Qays. She was an honorable Companion and a noble woman. She narrated Hadīths from the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) and died during the caliphate of Mu‘āwiyah.

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Abu ad-Dardā’ (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Abu ad-Dardā’ ‘Uwymir ibn Zayd ibn Qays, and it was said: ‘Uwaymir ibn ‘Āmir, or ibn ‘Abdullah, or Ibn Tha‘labah ibn ‘Abdullah, al-Ansāri al-Khazraji. He was an honorable Companion, an Imam, and a role model. He was the wise man of this Ummah, the judge of Damascus, and the master of reciters there. He was counted among those who recited (the Qur’an) to the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him), and it was not reported that he recited to anyone else. He was also counted among those who collected the Qur’an during the Prophet's lifetime. He died in 32 AH during the caliphate of ‘Uthmān, and it was said otherwise.

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Al-Fadl ibn al-‘Abbās (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is Al-Fadl ibn al-‘Abbās ibn ‘Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hāshim ibn ‘Abd Manāf al-Qurashi al-Hāshimi, Abu Muhammad and Abu ‘Abdullah. He was an honorable Companion and the Prophet's paternal cousin. He was the oldest among the children of Al-‘Abbās, who was nicknamed after him. He witnessed the Conquest of Makkah with the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) as well as the Battle of Hunayn; and he was one of those who remained steadfast with the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) during this battle from among his family and Companions, when all the others fled defeated. He also witnessed the Farewell Hajj with the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him), who made him ride behind him from Muzdalifah to Mina; hence, he was called 'Radīf Rasūlullāh'. Al-Fadl was present when the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) died and he participated in washing him, as he was the one who poured the water to ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib. Narrators held different opinions regarding the date of his death, the most authentic narration in this regard is that he set out to the Levant for Jihad and died during the plague of ‘Amwās, somewhere in Jordan, in 18 AH during the caliphate of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb.

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Abu al-‘Ās ibn ar-Rabī‘

He is Abu al-‘Ās ibn ar-Rabī‘ ibn ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Abd Manāf ibn Qusayy ibn Kilāb al-Qurashi al-‘Abshami, the Prophet's son-in-law. He was the husband of Zaynab, the Prophet's daughter, and the father of Umāmah, whom the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) used to carry during his prayer. His name was Laqīt, and it was said otherwise. His mother was Hālah bint Khuwaylid, Khadījah's sister. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) praised him as a son-in-law and said: "He was truthful in his words with me and fulfilled the promise that he made to me." He embraced Islam before the Conquest and died in 12 AH.

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Ka‘b ibn ‘Ujrah (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Ka‘b ibn ‘Ujrah al-Ansāri as-Sālimi al-Madani. He was an honorable Companion and one of the people of the Radwān Pledge.

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Ka‘b ibn Mālik (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Ka‘b ibn Mālik al-Ansāri as-Sulami, the Prophet's poet and his Companion. He was one of those who witnessed Al-‘Aqabah Pledge, and one of the three who lagged behind in the Battle of Tabūk, and who turned to Allah in repentance.

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Umm Kulthūm (may Allah be pleased with her)

She is Umm Kulthūm bint Muhammad, our chosen Prophet, ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him), al-Qurashiyyah al-Hāshimiyyah. Her mother was Khadījah bint Khuwaylid. Before Bi‘thah (start of the Prophet's mission), she was married to ‘Utaybah ibn Abi Lahab. After Bi‘thah and after the revelation of {May the hands of Abu Lahab perish}, Abu Lahab said to his son ‘Utaybah: "I will have nothing to do with you if you do not divorce his daughter", so he divorced her before consummating the marriage with her. She remained in Makkah with her father (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) and embraced Islam when her mother did. She pledged allegiance to the Prophet with her sisters when the women pledged allegiance to him. She emigrated to Madīnah and remained there. When her sister Ruqayyah died, the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) married her to ‘Uthmān ibn ‘Affān in Rabī‘ al-Awwal of the third year of Hijrah. He consummated the marriage with her in Jumāda al-Ākhirah of the same year, and she remained married to him, and did not give birth to any children for him, until she died in 9 AH.

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Abu Marthad al-Ghanawi (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Abu Marthad al-Ghanawi Kannāz ibn al-Husayn al-Ghanawi. He was an honorable Companion, one of the seniors and most virtuous among them, and was famous for his nickname. He witnessed the battles of Badr, Uhud, the Trench, and all the remaining battles with the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). He died in Madīnah during the caliphate of Abu Bakr at the age of sixty-six in 12 AH.

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Māriyah al-Qibtiyyah

She is Māriyah al-Qibtiyyah (may Allah be pleased with her), the Prophet's bondmaid and the mother of his son Ibrāhīm. She died in 16 AH. ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) himself gathered the people to witness her funeral and prayed over her, and she was buried in Al-Baqī‘.

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Imam Mālik

He is Mālik ibn Anas ibn Abi ‘Āmir al-Asbahi al-Madani Abu ‘Abdullah, Shaykh al-Islam, Hujjat al-Ummah (the most authentic source for Muslims), the Imam of Dār al-Hijrah, and one of the Four Imams. He was born in 93 AH. Groups of scholars unanimously agreed on his being an Imam and on obeying him in memorization and stabilization. Ash-Shāfi‘i said: "When scholars are mentioned, Mālik is the star." The Hadīths that he narrated are among the most authentic Hadīths and he was furthermore an Imam in Fiqh, and was the author of 'Al-Muwatta’'. He died in 179 AH.

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Mujāhid ibn Jabr

He is Abu al-Hajjāj Mujāhid ibn Jabr, the freed slave of Qays ibn as-Sā’ib al-Makhzūmi. He was a Tābi‘i (a Muslim who met a Companion of the Prophet and died as a Muslim) and the Imam and Shaykh of the memorizers and interpretors of the Qur’an. He was born during ‘Umar's caliphate in 21 AH. He reported from Ibn ‘Abbās abundantly and did well in doing so, and he learned from him the Qur’an, Tafsīr (Qur’an interpretation), and Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), and learned as well from Abu Hurayrah, ‘Ā’ishah, and others. He died in Makkah while prostrating in 104 AH at the age of eighty-three.

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‘Abdullah ibn Ja‘far (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is ‘Abdullah ibn Ja‘far ibn Abi Tālib ibn ‘Abdul-Muttalib, Abu Ja‘far al-Qurashi al-Hāshimi. He was an honorable Companion whose father was martyred during the Battle of Mu’tah. He became under the Prophet's guardianship and grew up in his house. He was highly esteemed and was extremely generous.

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‘Abdullah ibn Rawāhah

He is ‘Abdullah ibn Rawāhah ibn Tha‘labah ibn Imri’ al-Qays al-Ansāri al-Khazraji. He was an honorable Companion, one of the Prophet's poets from the Ansār (Supporters), one of the chiefs chosen to represent his tribe at the Pledge of Al-‘Aqabah, and one of the Muslim fighters in the Battle of Badr. He was highly esteemed both in the pre-Islamic era and in Islam, and was killed in the Battle of Mu’tah in 8 AH.

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‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is ‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr ibn al-‘Awwām al-Asadi al-Qurashi. He was an honorable Companion and the son of the great Companion Az-Zubayr ibn al-‘Awwām. He was born in 2 AH and his mother was Asmā’ bint Abi Bakr as-Siddīq. He was the knight of the Quraysh during his time and had memorable stances. He was assigned the caliphate for nine years until he was killed in 73 AH.

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‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbās (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is Abu al-‘Abbās ‘Abdullah ibn al-‘Abbās ibn ‘Abdul-Muttalib al-Hāshimi, the Prophet's paternal cousin. He was an honorable Companion, Habr al-Ummah (the most knowledgeable scholar of the Ummah), Faqīh al-‘Asr (the most distinguished scholar of Fiqh at his time), the Imam of Tafsīr (interpretation of the Qur’an), and one of Al-Mukthirūn (Companions who narrated more than one thousand Hadīths each), in addition to many of his other merits. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) supplicated for him saying: "O Allah, grant him understanding in religion and teach him the interpretation of the Qur’an." He died in 68 AH.

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Abu Bakr as-Siddīq (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Abu Bakr as-Siqqīq ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Quhāfah ‘Uthmān ibn ‘Āmir al-Qurashi at-Taymi, the Prophet's successor and the first among men to embrace Islam. He was one of the ten who were given the glad tidings of Paradise and the Prophet's companion in the cave, which was an honor for him. Allah Almighty revealed Qur’anic verses regarding it, which will continue to be recited until the Day of Judgment. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) married his daughter and Abu Bakr witnessed all the battles with him. He was the best in this Ummah after the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). He led the people in prayer during the Prophet's last illness. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said about him: "The person who has favored me most of all, both with his company and wealth, is Abu Bakr. If I were to take a Khalīl (close friend) other than my Lord, I would have taken Abu Bakr as such, but it is the Islamic brotherhood and friendliness." [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri] He died in 13 AH.

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‘Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa ‘Alqamah ibn Khālid ibn al-Hārith al-Khuzā‘i. He was an honorable Companion and one the people of the Radwān Pledge. He was the last to die in Kufa from among the Companions and that was in 87 AH.

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‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Ās (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is Abu Muhammad ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Ās al-Qurashi as-Sahmi. He was an honorable Companion and one of the scholars and devout worshipers. He embraced Islam and emigrated after the seventh year of Hijrah. He witnessed some of the battles. He had merits and a high status both in knowledge and in practice. He reported abundant knowledge from the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). He died in 65 AH.

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‘Abdullah ibn Mughaffal al-Muzani (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is ‘Abdullah ibn Mughaffal al-Muzani Abu Sa‘īd and Abu Ziyād. He was an honorable Companion who lived in Basrah, and one of those who cried for not being able to participate in the Battle of Tabūk. He witnessed the Tree Pledge and was one of the ten whom ‘Umar sent to Basrah to teach people the religion of Islam. He was the first to enter the gate of the city of Tustar, and he died in 57 AH.

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‘Attābn ibn Usayd

He is ‘Attāb ibn Usayd ibn Abi al-‘Īs ibn Umayyah ibn ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Abd Manāf al-Qurashi al-Umawi. He was an honorable Companion who embraced Islam on the day of the Conquest of Makkah. He was firm against the doubters and gentle with the believers.

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‘Urwah ibn az-Zubayr

He is Abu ‘Abdullah, ‘Urwah ibn az-Zubayr ibn al-‘Awwām al-Qurashi al-Asadi al-Imām. He was a Tābi‘i who was born in 23 AH. He was one of the seven scholars of Fiqh in Madīnah and one of the senior Tābi‘is. He reported only few Hadīths from his father because of his young age, and reported also from his mother, Asmā’ bint Abi Bakr as-Siddīq, and from his maternal aunt, ‘Ā’ishah the Mother of the Believers, whom he accompanied and learnt from. ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul-‘Azīz said: "None is more knowledgeable than ‘Urwah ibn az-Zubayr." He died in 94 AH.

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‘Uqbah ibn ‘Āmir al-Juhani (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Āmir ibn ‘Abs al-Juhani. He was an honorable Companion, a scholar, an eloquent Muqri’ (a teacher of the recitation of the Qur’an), a scholar of Fiqh well-versed in the law of inheritance, and a great poet. He witnessed the conquest of Egypt and died there during the last period of the caliphate of Mu‘āwiyah ibn Abi Sufyān, and he was buried in Al-Muqattam.

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Abu Mūsa al-Ash‘ari (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Abu Mūsa al-Ash‘ari ‘Abdullah ibn Qays ibn Sulaym ibn Haddār al-Ash‘ari. He was an honorable Companion who embraced Islam early in Makkah and emigrated to Abyssinia. He narrated many Hadīths and was a devout worshiper, a scholar of Fiqh, knowledgeable in Hadīth, and a wise man. It was reported in the two Sahīh Collections that the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "O Allah, forgive the sins of ‘Abdullah ibn Qays and admit him to a noble entrance." He died in 42 AH and was buried in Makkah - it was said that he was buried near Kufa, two miles away, in a region called Ath-Thawiyyah.

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‘Abdullah ibn Mas‘ūd (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is ‘Abdullah ibn Mas‘ūd ibn Ghāfil ibn Habīb al-Hudhali Abu ‘Abdur-Rahmān. He was an honorable Companion who embraced Islam early and emigrated twice. He witnessed Badr and the following battles, accompanied the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him), and was the one who used to hold his shoes for him. He was one of the scholars of Fiqh and memorizers of the Qur’an from among the Companions. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Whoever wants to recite the Qur’an as fresh as it was revealed, let him recite it the way Ibn Umm ‘Abd does." He died in 32 AH.

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‘Uthmān ibn Abi al-‘Ās ath-Thaqafi (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is ‘Uthmān ibn Abi al-‘Ās ibn Bishr ath-Thaqafi. He was an honorable Companion and a member in the delegation of Thaqīf who came to the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) in Madīnah and embraced Islam. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) appointed him ruler of Tā’if and he remained its ruler during the Prophet's lifetime, and during Abu Bakr's calipate, and for two years of ‘Umar's caliphate. Then, ‘Umar appointed him as a ruler of Oman and Bahrain in 15 AH. After that, he lived in Basrah and remained there until he died during the caliphate of Mu‘āwiyah in 50 AH - and it was said 51 AH.

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‘Uthmān ibn ‘Affān (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is the Rightly-Guided Caliph, the Commander of the Believers, ‘Uthmān ibn ‘Affān ibn Abi al-‘Ās al-Qurashi al-Umawi. He was one of the early Muslims. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) married his daughter Ruqayyah to him. After her death, He married her sister, Umm Kulthūm, to him; thus, he was nicknamed 'Dhun-Nūrayn' (the one with two lights). He was one of the ten who were given the glad tidings of Paradise, and one of the six whom the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) died while he was pleased with. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said about him: "Should I not feel shy of a man whom the angels feel shy of?" He also said about him: "Give him the glad tidings of Paradise for a trial that would afflict him." He had many great stances, which shows his merit and support for Islam, some of which are: emigrating twice: first to Abyssinia then to Madīnah; preparing the army of Al-‘Usrah; digging the well of Rūmah and dedicating it as charity to the Muslims; and expanding the Prophetic Mosque. During his caliphate, he collected the Noble Qur’an, and the Muslims' conquests extended reaching the farthest ends of the globe.

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‘Uthmān ibn Mazh‘ūn

He is ‘Uthmān ibn Mazh‘ūn ibn Habīb ibn Wahb ibn Hudhāfah ibn Jumah al-Jumahi. Ibn Is-hāq said: "He embraced Islam after thirteen men." He, along with his son As-Sā’ib, set out on the first emigration in a group. Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqās reported: "The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) forbade ‘Uthmān ibn Mazh‘ūn to be celibate. Had he given him permission, we would have castrated ourselves." He was the first to die in Madīnah from among the Emigrants and the first among them to be buried in Baqī‘ graveyard. ‘Ā’ishah reported: "The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) kissed ‘Uthmān ibn Mazh‘ūn when he died and he (the Prophet) was crying and tears were flowing from his eyes." When Ibrāhīm, the Prophet's son, died, the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Follow our righteous predecessor, ‘Uthmān ibn Mazh‘ūn." He died in 2 AH.

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Abu Mas‘ūd al-Badri (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Amr ibn Tha‘labah Abu Mas‘ūd al-Badri al-Ansāri. He was an honorable Companion who witnessed Al-‘Aqabah Pledge. Scholars held different opinions regarding whether or not he witnessed the Battle of Badr. Assuming that he did not witness it, he was called 'Badri' because he stayed by water of Badr. He narrated many Hadīths, and he is counted among one of the scholars of the Companions. He died in 39 or 40 AH.

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Muhammad ibn Maslamah (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Muhammad ibn Maslamah ibn Salamah ibn Khālid al-Ansāri al-Awsi. He was an honorable Companion who witnessed all the battles with the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him), except the Battle of Tabūk, as the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) appointed him as his successor in Madīnah. He witnessed the conquest of Egypt and died in 43 AH.

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Al-Mustawrid ibn Shaddād (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Al-Mustawrid ibn Shaddād ibn ‘Amr al-Qurashi al-Fihri. He was an honorable Companion; he and his father enjoyed the honor of being the Prophet's companions. He was a boy when the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) died. He witnessed the conquest of Egypt and died in Alexandria in 45 AH.

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Al-Miswar ibn Makhramah (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is Al-Miswar ibn Makhramah ibn Nawfal ibn Uhayb al-Qurashi az-Zuhri. He was an honorable Companion who enjoyed the honor of the Prophet's companionship and narrated from him. He was counted among the young Companions like An-Nu‘mān ibn Bashīr and Ibn az-Zubayr. He was one of those who accompanied ‘Umar and memorized from him. He was born in Makkah two years after Hijrah and he died there at the beginning of Rabī‘ al-Ākhir in 64 AH.

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‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib al-Hāshimi al-Qurashi. He was an honorable Companion, the fourth Rightly-Guided Caliph, one of the first forerunners, and one of the ten who were given the glad tidings of Paradise. He was the first to embrace Islam, at the age of ten, from among the boys. He was the Prophet's paternal cousin and the husband of Fātimah, the world's best woman and the Prophet's daughter, and the father of the Prophet's grandsons: Al-Hasan and Al-Husayn, the masters of the youth of Paradise. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) loved ‘Ali and died while he was pleased with him. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) considered his relationship with ‘Ali like that of Hārūn (Aaron) and Mūsa (Moses) saying: "Will it not please you to be for me like Aaron was for Moses? But there is no prophet after me." [Agreed upon] Umm Salamah (may Allah be pleased with her ) reported: "I testify that I heard the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) say: 'Whoever loves ‘Ali loves me, and whoever loves me loves Allah; and whoever hates ‘Ali hates me, and whoever hates me hates Allah Almighty.'" He was killed in 40 AH.

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Ibn Sīrīn

He is Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Sīrīn al-Basri al-Ansāri their freed slave, a Tābi‘i and an Imam, and a pioneer in the interpretation of visions. His father, Sīrīn, was a slave of Anas ibn Mālik, the Companion, who set him free. He was born two years before the end of ‘Umar's caliphate. A book on dreams interpretation was attributed to him; however, such attribution is inauthentic because all those who worked on his biography, during the first three centuries of Hijrah, never mentioned that Ibn Sīrīn had written a book on interpretation of dreams, although they mentioned how proficient he was in that field. Some sources reported examples of his interpretation of dreams, yet, it never mentioned that such examples were quoted from any book that he had written or dictated. In fact, what is reported from him in this regard is lesser than what is in that book. He died in 110 AH.

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Abu Hāmid al-Ghazzāli

He is Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad at-Tūsi, Abu Hāmid al-Ghazzāli, with double 'z' as stated by Ibn as-Sam‘āni, Ibn al-Athīr, An-Nawawi, Ibn Khallikān, Ibn Daqīa al-‘Īd, Adh-Dhahabi, As-Subki, As-Sakhāwi, and Al-Murtada az-Zabīdi. There is a difference of opinion in this regard; however, this is the approved opinion. He was born in 450 AH. He was a Shāfi‘i and an Usūli scholar of Fiqh (specialized in studying the fundamentals of Fiqh). He authored many books like 'Ihyā’ ‘Ulūm ad-Dīn' and 'Al-Mustasfa fi Usūl al-Fiqh'. He wrote Fiqh books like 'Al-Wajīz', 'Al-Wsīt', and 'Al-Basīt'. He engaged in philosophy, but then he gave it up and refuted its claims. Then, he engaged in what is called '‘Ilm al-Kalām' (scholastic theology) and he mastered its principles and introductions, but again, he refrained from it after finding out its corruption and contradictions and its people's futile arguments. He was a Mutakallim (scholastic theologian) during the period when he rebutted the philosophers' claims and he was, thus, called 'Hujjat al-Islam' because he succeeded in confuting them. Later, he followed the Bātinyyah (esoteric) Sect and learned their sciences; but then, he renounced their beliefs and exposed their invalidity and exposed how they manipulate the Shariah texts and rulings. After that, he adopted Sufism. Ibn as-Salāh said about him: "Abu Hāmid said a lot, and a lot was said about him. As for these books - referring to his books which contradict the truth - they are not worthy of looking into; and as for the man himself, nothing should be said about him and his affairs should be entrusted to Allah." Adh-Dhahabi said: "He wrote the book of 'At-Tahāfut' in criticizing the philosophers and exposing them. He agreed with them on certain points assuming that this was right or that it complies with religion. He had no knowledge of the textual reports and no experience of the Prophetic Sunnah that refutes reason. He was addicted to reading 'Rasā’il Ikhwān as-Safa' (Epistles of the Brethren of Purity), which is an incurable evil, a fatal illness, and a deadly poison. Had it not been for his high intelligence and his ultimate sincerity, he would have gone astray. So, beware of such books and flee with your religion from the misconceptions of the past or else you may fall into the pit of confusion." Abu Bakr ibn al-‘Arabi said: "Our Shaykh Abu Hāmid had swallowed the philosophers, but when he wanted to vomit them up, he could not." Al-Qādi ‘Iyād said: "Shaykh Abu Hāmid, the one with the horrible reports and terrible writings, had exaggerated in adopting Sufism and was devoted to supporting their doctrine and became a preacher in this regard. He wrote his famous book - referring to 'Al-’Ihyā’' - on this topic and was criticized for certain points therein, and many thought ill about him, and Allah knows best about his intention. Our Sultan's command was implemented, and the scholars of Fiqh issued a Fatwa that it (his book) should be burnt and abandoned, and this is what happened." Ibn al-Jawzi said: "Abu Hāmid authored 'Al-Ihyā’' and filled it with false Hadīths, without knowing that they were false. He also talked about Kashf (inspiration on some matters of the unseen) and he trespassed the law of Fiqh." He died in 505 AH.

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Mu‘ādh ibn Jabal (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Mu‘ādh ibn Jabal ibn ‘Amr al-Ansāri al-Khazraji. He was an honorable Companion, the Imam of the scholars of Fiqh, the scholars' treasure, and the most knowledgeable of what is lawful and what is unlawful. He witnessed Al-‘Aqabah Pledge, the Battle of Badr and other battles. He was the best among the youth of the Supporters in terms of tolerance, modesty, and generosity. Several Hadīths were reported on his merits.

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Ma‘qil ibn Yasār (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Ma‘qil ibn Yasār ibn ‘Abdullah al-Muzani al-Basri. He was an honorable Companion who embraced Islam before Al-Hudaybiyah Treaty. He was one of the people of the Radwān Pledge. He participated in the Riddah (apostasy) Wars during the era of Abu Bakr as-Siddīq and marched with the army that conquered Persia under the leadership of Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqās. He participated in other battles during the era of ‘Umar, who appointed him as ruler of Basrah. He lived there and died there at the end of Mu‘āwiyah's caliphate.

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Mu‘ayqīb ad-Dawsi (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Mu‘ayqīb ibn Abi Fātimah ad-Dawsi. He was an honorable Companion who embraced Islam early in Makkah. He emigrated to Abyssinia at the second emigration, then he emigrated to Madīnah. He was in charge of the ring of the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). Abu Bakr entrusted him with Al-Fay’ (possessions taken from the disbelievers without fighting), while ‘Umar put Bayt al-Māl (the Muslims' public treasury) under his charge. He died at the end of ‘Uthmān's caliphate, and it was said that he died in 40 AH at the end of ‘Ali's caliphate.

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Mu‘āwiyah ibn Abi Sufyān (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is Abu ‘Abdur-Rahmān Mu‘āwiyah ibn Abi Sufyān Sakhr ibn Harb ibn Umayyah al-Qurashi al-Umawi. He was an honorable Companion and the Commander of the Believers. It was said that he embraced Islam before his father at the time of Al-Qadā’ (compensation) ‘Umrah. He was afraid of his father and; thus, did not follow the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) or reveal his Islam except on the day of the Conquest of Makkah. He was one of the scribes of the revelation. When Abu Bakr as-Siddīq became the caliph, he appointed him as leader of an army under the leadership of his brother Yazīd ibn Abi Sufyān, and he led the front army in conquering the cities of Sidon, Araqah, Byblos, and Beirut. When ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb became the caliph, he appointed him as the ruler of Jordan, then as the ruler of Damascus, after the death of its ruler who was his brother Yazīd. Later, ‘Uthmān ibn ‘Affān entrusted him with all the cities of the Levant and made its rulers under his leadership. After the killing of ‘Uthmān, ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib became the caliph and he disagreed with Mu‘āwiyah regarding what should be done after the killing of ‘Uthmān. The conflict continued until Ibn Muljam al-Khāriji assassinated ‘Ali, then, his son, Al-Hasan, succeeded him. However, he waived the caliphate to Mu‘āwiyah, as per an agreement between them, in 41 AH. Two groups of people adopted extreme attitudes regarding ‘Ali: one group exaggerated in loving and supporting him, and the other group exaggerated in hating and warning against him to the extent of accusing him of disbelief and hypocrisy. Ibn Hazm said: "Al-Hasan was given the pledge of allegiance, then he handed it over to Mu‘āwiyah, although there were still among the Companions those who were definitely better than both of them from those who spent and fought before the Conquest. However, all of them pledged allegiance to Mu‘āwiyah and agreed on his leadership. This is a certain unanimity after the unanimous agreement on the permissibility of the leadership of one, even if there are others better than him." He died in 60 AH.

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Al-Mughīrah ibn Shu‘bah (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Al-Mughīrah ibn Shu‘bah ibn Abi ‘Āmir ath-Thaqafi. He was an honorable Companion; one of their seniors who was known for his bravery and for stratagem. He embraced Islam in the year of the Battle of the Trench and witnessed the following battles with the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). He also witnessed the Ridwān Pledge. He was called 'Mughīrat ar-Ra’y' and was shrewd. He died during the caliphate of Mu‘āwiyah.

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Al-Miqdād ibn al-Aswad (may Allah be pleased with him)

Al-Miqdād ibn al-Aswad al-Kindi is Al-Miqdād ibn ‘Amr ibn Tha‘labah ibn Mālik ibn Rabī‘ah ibn ‘Āmir ibn Matrūd al-Bahrāni, and it was said al-Hadrami. He was under care and guardianship of Al-Aswad ibn ‘Abd Yaghūth; so, he was attributed to him. He was an honorable Companion who embraced Islam early. He married Dubā‘ah bint az-Zubayr ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, the Prophet's paternal cousin, and he made the two emigrations. He witnessed Badr and the following battles, and he was a knight on the Day of Badr. He died in 33 AH.

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Maymūnah bint al-Hārith (may Allah be pleased with her)

She is Maymūnah bint al-Hārith al-Hilāliyyah al-‘Āmiriyyah, Mother of the Believers and wife of the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). He married her in Dhul-Qi‘dah in 7 AH, and she was the last woman he married. She died in 51 AH.

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Abu Barzah al-Aslami (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is Abu Barzah al-Aslami, and there are different opinions regarding his name: it was said: Nadlah ibn ‘Ubayd, which is the more correct opinion, and it was said: Nadlah ibn ‘Amr. He was an honorable Companion who embraced Islam before the Conquest of Makkah, and he participated in seven battles. He died in 65 AH.

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An-Nu‘mān ibn Bashīr (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is An-Nu‘mān ibn Bashīr ibn Sa‘d ibn Tha‘labah al-Ansāri al-Khazraji. He was an honorable Companion who was born eight years before the death of the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). He was a poet and he was extremely generous. He was one of the rulers of Mu‘āwiyah, who first appointed him as ruler of Kufa for a period of time, then he was appointed the judge of Damascus after Fadālah, then he was appointed the ruler of Homs. He was killed in the village of Bīrīn by Khālid ibn Khaliyy, after the Battle of Marj Rāhit at the end of 64 AH, when he called the people of Homs to pledge allegiance to Ibn az-Zubayr.

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Umm Salamah (may Allah be pleased with her)

She is the Mother of the Believers, Umm Salamah Hind bint Abi Umayyah Hudhayfah ibn al-Mughīrah ibn ‘Abdullah al-Makhzūmiyyah. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) married her in Shawwāl, 4 AH, and it was said that he married her before that. She was one of the early female Emigrants, and she was counted from the female scholars of Fiqh among the female Companions. She was extremely beautiful and she lived almost ninety years. She was the last to die among the Mothers of the Believers. She died in 59 or 64 AH, and it was said otherwise.

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‘Itbān ibn Mālik

He is ‘Itbān ibn Mālik ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Ajlān al-Ansāri al-Khazraji as-Sālimi. He was an honorable Companion. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) established bond of brotherhood between him and ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb. He witnessed the battles of Badr, Uhud, and the Trench, and he lost his sight during the Prophet's lifetime. He died in the middle of the caliphate of Mu‘āwiyah ibn Abi Sufyān and he had no children.

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‘Imrān ibn al-Husayn

He is Abu Nujayd ‘Imrān ibn Husayn ibn ‘Ubayd ibn Khalaf al-Khuzā‘i. He was an honorable Companion who embraced Islam in the year of the Battle of Khaybar. He participated in several battles and was the one holding the banner in the Conquest of Makkah. He narrated several Hadīths. He was among the most virtuous of the Companions and among their scholars of Fiqh. He was assigned the judiciary in Basrah. Ibn Sīrīn said about him: "The best Companions who settled in Basrah were ‘Imrān and Abu Bakrah." Al-Hasan used to swear that none came to them in Basrah better than ‘Imrān. He died in 52 or 53 AH.

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Abu Hanīfah

He is Abu Hanīfah an-Nu‘mān ibn Thābit ibn Zūta al-Kūfi, the Imam and the most knowledgeable scholar of Fiqh. He possessed great religious prudence and piety. He was fierce in defending the limits of Allah. He was offered great worldly gains but he rejected all of them. He was even whipped to accept the post of judiciary or Bayt al-Māl (the Muslims' public treasury), but he refused. Adh-Dhahabi said: "His biography could be written in two volumes, may Allah be pleased with him and may He have mercy upon him." Ahmad said about him: "Abu Hanīfah occupies a special status, which could not be attained by anyone else, in terms of knowledge, religious prudence, asceticism, and preferring the Hereafter. He was whipped to work with Al-Mansūr, but he rejected. So, may the mercy and pleasure of Allah be upon him." Imam Ash-Shāfi‘i said: "Mālik ibn Anas was asked: 'Did you see Abu Hanīfah and hold a debate with him?' He replied: 'Yes, I saw a man who if he saw at this pole, which is made of rock and willed to prove that this is made of gold, he could do so." He died in 150 AH.

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Waraqah ibn Nawfal

He is Waraqah ibn Nawfal ibn Asad ibn ‘Abdul-‘Uzza ibn Qusayy al-Qurashi al-Asadi, the paternal cousin of Khadījah, the Prophet's wife. Scholars held different opinions regarding whether or not he is counted among the Companions. Some scholars, like At-Tabari, Al-Baghawi, Ibn Qāni‘, Ibn as-Sakan, and others, mentioned him among the Companions. Others, however, said that he was not a Companion; rather, he believed in the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) and died during the time of the revelation. Ibn Hajar said: "This apparently means that he acknowledged his prophethood, but died before the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) started calling people to Islam. Thus, he is like Bahīra. Counting him among the Companions is disputable." On the other hand, some scholars said nothing about it, only mentioned the different opinions in this regard. Al-Kirmāni said: "When being asked about Waraqah and whether or not he is counted a believer, I would say that he was a believer in ‘Īsa (Jesus) (peace be upon him) and there is no doubt about that. As for belief in our Prophet (peace be upon him), it is unknown whether or not the religion of Jesus was abrogated at the time of his death. If it was abrogated at that time, then faith, according to the sound opinion, at that time refers to affirmation and he (Waraqah) affirmed his prophethood without mentioning anything that contradict it." The preponderant opinion in this regard, and Allah knows best, is that he was a believer and a monotheist; however, he is not counted among the Companions because he died during the revelation period, i.e., after the beginning of the Prophet's mission but before the Prophet started conveying the divine message.

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‘Abdullah ibn Hudhāfah (may Allah be pleased with him)

He is ‘Abdullah ibn Hudhāfah ibn Qays al-Qurashi as-Sahmi. He was an honorable Companion and one of the first forerunners. It was said that he witnessed the Battle of Badr. Among his merits was when ‘Umar dispatched an army to the Romans and ‘Abdullah ibn Hudhāfah, who was in the army, was taken captive. The King of the Romans made him a proposal saying: "Convert to Christianity and I shall make you a partner in my kingdom." But he refused it; so, the king had him put on a cross and ordered his soldiers to throw spears at him. ‘Abdullah did not cry out in fright; hence, he was taken down from the cross. Then, a pot was brought and water was poured in it and it was heated till boiling. One of the captives was, then, thrown therein and his bones could soon be seen. The King ordered that ‘Abdullah be thrown therein if he refused to convert to Christianity. ‘Abdullah wept when being taken to execute the king's command, and when the king asked him about the reason for his weeping, he replied: "I wish I had a hundred souls to be thrown that way in the cause of Allah." The king was astonished at his reply and said: "Kiss my head and I shall set you free." ‘Abdullah asked: "And all the Muslim captives too?" He said: "Yes." So, ‘Abdullah kissed his head and they were all set free. ‘Abdullah brought them to ‘Umar, who stood up and kissed his head. He died in about 33 AH.

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‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him and his father)

He is Abu ‘Abdur-Rahmān ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar al-Khattāb al-Qurashi al-‘Adawi, the Imam and the role model. He was an honorable Companion who was born two years after Bi‘thah (start of the Prophet's mission). He embraced Islam along with his father while he was still young. He, then, emigrated with his father before reaching puberty. He was considered too young to participate in the Battle of Uhud. The Battle of the Trench was the first battle he participated in. He was one of those who pledged allegiance to the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) under the tree. He followed the example of the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) in all aspects of life. He possessed religious prudence and was ascetic, extremely generous, knowledgeable, and religious. He chose to stay away from the Fitnah (civil war) and did not participate in any of them. He used to spend a lot in charity and he was one of Al-Mukthirūn (Companions who narrated more than one thousand Hadīths each), coming next after Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) in this regard. He died in 73 AH.

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Abu Bakr al-Jazā’iri

He is Abu Bakr al-Jazā’iri Abu Bakr Jābir ibn Mūsa ibn ‘Abdul-Qādir ibn Jābir al-Jazā’iri. He was a teacher in the Prophet's Mosque for more than forty years. He wrote several books, some of which are: 'Minhāj al-Muslim', '‘Aqīdat al-Mu’min', 'Aysar at-Tafāsīr', and others. He also had many academic and preaching contributions. He lived 97 years and died in 4/12/1439.

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Muhammad al-Amīn ash-Shanqīti

He is Muhammad al-Amīn ibn Muhammad al-Mukhtār ibn ‘Abdul-Qādir ibn Muhammad al-Jakni al-Shanqīti. He was born in 1325 AH and was a member of the Council of Senior Scholars. He was also a teacher in the Prophet's Mosque and a member of the Islamic University Council in Madīnah. He wrote many books, some of which are: 'Adwā’ al-Bayān Li Tafsīr al-Qur’ān bil Qur’ān', 'Ādāb al-Bahth wa al-Munāzharah', 'Mudhakkirah fi Usūl al-Fiqh', and 'Daf‘ Īhām al-Idtirāb ‘an Āy al-Kitāb'. All of his books were printed in nineteen volumes under the name 'Āthār Ash-Shayk al-‘Allāmah Muhammad al-Amīn ash-Shanqīti'. He died in 1393 AH.

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Ibn ‘Āshūr

He is Muhammad at-Tāhir ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad at-Tāhir ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ash-Shādhili ibn ‘Abdul-Qādir ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Āshūr. He greatly excelled in a number of sciences like the science of Shariah, language, and literature. He was fluent in French and was a correspondent member in the Academy of the Arabic Language in Damascus and Cairo. He held important academic and administrative posts in teaching, judiciary, and giving Fatwa, and he was appointed as the Shaykh of Az-Zaytūnah Mosque. He wrote tens of books like 'At-Tahrīr wa at-Tanwīr', 'Maqāsid ash-Sharī‘ah', and others. His friend, Shaykh Muhammad al-Khidr Husayn, said about him: "The Professor possessed eloquence of speech and skill of expression. In addition to his abundant knowledge and deep reflection, he possessed a pure taste and well-versed in linguistics...I used to notice that he was truthful in his words, ambitious in resolution, diligent in work, and observant of his religious duties and etiquettes... In general, my admiration for his pure morals and tolerant manners is not less than my admiration for him as a genius scholar." He died in 1393 AH.

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