Reaching the state of perfection.
Giving a non-binding religious ruling.
Everything that is definitively prohibited under Shariah.
Request of the Lawgiver (Allah) to do something in a way that is not binding.
A strength that comes to a child and transforms him into a man or a woman.
Everything that a person believes in with absolute certainty, his heart agrees with, and he adopts as a doctrine.
Allah's ordainment a certain act to be done by way of obligation.
The objectives and rationales that the Lawgiver took into consideration, generally and specifically, while legislating to achieve people’s interests.
A statment of the Lawgiver (Allah) ordering to avoid something, but not in strictly prohibitory terms.
A firm command by the Almighty Lawgiver to refrain from a particular action.
The guidance followed by the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) and his noble Companions in terms of religious affairs, which include statements, actions, and beliefs.
Deviation from the truth, intentionally or unintentionally.
To do what is commanded and abstain from what is forbidden out of compliance whether in terms of statements, actions, or beliefs.
The cognitive instinct by which Allah Almighty has distinguished man from other living beings. Loss of mind renders the person no longer accountable for religious duties.
The clear course in the religion that includes the beliefs, rulings, and ethics.
Everything that is definitively prohibited under Shariah.
A scholar making his best efforts to reach a secondary Shariah ruling based on the relevant proofs.
Everything permitted and sanctioned by the Shariah.
"Ijmā‘": the agreement among a group of people over a certain matter.
"Ikrāh": forcing someone to do something he dislikes. It is derived from "kurh", which means dislike.
"Tarkhīs": facilitating, making things easy. Other meanings: decreasing, reducing.
"Adab": good manners and noble actions. Its original meaning is calling, as it calls people to what is praiseworthy.
"Istinbāt": deduce. It is derived from "anbat", which means "extract" and originally comes from "nabat", which is the water that comes out of the well immediately after it is dug up.
"Ittifāq": agreement, conformity and closeness between two things. Other meanings: convergence, unity, harmony.
"Ithm": sin, the sin that makes the sinner deserving of punishment. Original meaning: slowness, delay.
"Tamyīz": isolating and sorting out something; keeping something away; separating and distinguishing between similar things.
"Bātil": false, invalid. Opposite: true, valid. Original meaning: going away or remaining for a short time.
"Ta‘jīl": hastening; doing something before its due time. It is derived from "‘ajalah", which is the opposite of slowness and tardiness. Other meanings: doing something before another.
"‘Udhr": A proof that one uses for an excuse. Everything that removes blame is an excuse.
"Rukn": foundation, support, strongest side, pivot. It is derived from "rakn", which means strength, firmness. Other meanings: the supporting pillar of something, which keeps it erect.
"Taysīr": facilitation, easing. It is derived from "yusr", which means: ease, docility. Opposite: hardship, difficulty.
"Fard": cutting, obligation, appraisal.
"Naskh": removing and moving, copying. Original meaning: replacing something with another. Other meanings: converting, changing, abrogating.
"Wājib": required, established. It is derived from "wujūb", which means: requirement, establishment, falling.
"Qiyās": to associate, attach, compare two similar objects, simile, resemblance. Other meanings: consideration, compromise, and correctness.
"Nahy": stopping, rebuking, preventing. Opposite: command. It is derived from "intihā’", which means: stopping at a certain point. Other meanings: attainment, arrival, prohibition, rejection, dismissal.
"Makrūh": detestable, abominable. Opposite: loved, recommended. It is derived from "karāhah", which means hardship, distress, and from "kurh" or "karh", which means: abhorrence. "Makrūh" is what one hates and deems difficult. Other meanings: something disallowed, rejected, hardship, harshness.
"Al-‘Arabiyyah": the language that Arabs speak. It is derived from "ta‘rīb", which means: clarification, declaration.
"‘Urf": a term that collectively refers to all the things that a given society knows and recognizes as good. Original meaning: what is "ma‘rūf", i.e. known and recognized, of good and benevolent deeds. Other meanings: what is common and known among people.
"‘Ilm": knowledge. Opposite: ignorance. Other meanings: understanding, belief.
"Fasād": damage or defect in something. Opposite: soundness, validity. Original meaning: departure from a moderate state.
"Faskh": removing, lifting, annulling, invalidating.
"Taklīf": commanding things that one finds difficult.
"Rukhsah" (pl. rukhas): ease, facilitation, leniency. Opposite: hardness. Other meanings: permission, pardon.
"Jawāz": permissibility, permission. Opposite: prevention. Original meaning: traversing, crossing. Other meanings: effectiveness, health, ability, forgiveness, dispensation.
"Hazhr": banning. Opposite: permitting.
"Majnūn": someone who has lost his mind. It is derived from "junūn" and "jinnah", which mean: loss of mind. Original meaning: concealment, hiding, covering.
"Mashrū‘iyyah": legitimacy. It is derived from "mashrū‘", which means: clarified, plain, legitimate. The original meaning of "shar‘": revealing, explanation.
"Mashaqqah": hardship, burden, exhaustion, suffering, difficulty.
"Thawāb": reward for a deed, good or bad, and the recompense for a doer of good or a doer of evil.
"Mujtahid": someone who exerts his utmost efforts to reach something. It is derived from "jahd", which means: hardship, tiredness. Other meanings: an earnest pursuer of a certain goal.
"Mutawātir": successive. It is derived from "witr", which means: odd-numbered. Opposite: discontinued. Other meanings: succession of things one after the other without a gap between them.
"Ikhtilāf": dispute, disagreement, contradiction, reversal. Opposite: agreement. It is derived from "khilāfah", which means: succession and replacement of something by another. Other meanings: variation, change, dispersion.
"Usūl" (sing. asl): the bottom of something. Original meaning: foundation upon which something is built. Other meanings: the first, the pure, the origin.
"Idtirār": bad need, necessity. It is originally derived from "darar", which means: hardship, restriction.
"Jahl": ignorance. Opposite: knowledge. Other meanings: foolishness.
The clear, unambiguous verses whose meaning is not hidden from anyone.
Conflict between two or more valid non-contradictory opinions which can be reconciled.
"Thabāt": stillness, stability. Original meaning: continuity, permanence. Opposite: end, coming to a halt. Other meanings: uprightness, adherence.
"Taysīr": making things easy for oneself or for others. It is derived from "yusr", which means: ease, compliance. Opposite: difficulty, hardship. Original meaning: openness and lightness.
"Ijrām": committing a "jurm": crime or sin. "Ijrām" is derived from "jarm", which means: cutting off or earning. A sin is called a "jurm" because it is something earned by its perpetrator. Other meanings: corrupting, hurting someone.
"Ihbāt": annulment, invalidation. It is derived from "habt", which means: an animal eating so much fodder that its belly swells and then dies.
"Safāhah": foolishness. Original meaning: frivolity, recklessness, imprudence, crookedness and confusion. Opposite: forbearance, rationality.
"Azm": determination to do something. Original meaning: cutting. Other meanings: patience, strength, emphasis, earnestness, duty.
"Fiqh": realizing, knowing. "It is derived from "faqīh", which means: scholar, knowledgeable person. Original meaning: opening, splitting; hence, knowledge was called "fiqh" because the person who has knowledge cuts through meanings and opens up what is closed (ambiguous) thereof. Other meanings: understanding.
"Ittibā‘": following, imitating. Original meaning: tracing the steps of walker and walking after him.
The foundations upon which something is established and without which it cannot be achieved.
"Thawābit" (sing. thābit): what is constant and stable. It is derived from "thubūt", which means permanence. Other meanings: things that are enduring, well-established, and correct.
"Jadal": intense discord. It is derived from "jadal" and "mujādalah", which mean debate, dispute. Original meaning: strength, solidity.
"Al-haqq": the truth, the constant. Opposite: falsehood, error. Other meanings: what is due, necessary, certain.
"‘Ajz": weakness. Original meaning: falling behind. Opposite: ability.
"Dalīl": evidence, indicating sign. Other meanings: guide to something.
"Hadīth": spoken speech, something new. It is derived from "hadāthah", which means modernity. Opposite: old.
"Sunnah" (pl. sunan): method, line of conduct, good or bad, nature, destination.
"Iqtidā’": Following someone’s example, copying, imitating.
"Iftā’": the answer to a question. Other meanings: clarification of something obscure or confusing.
"‘Afw": forgiveness, pardon, refraining from punishment. Original meaning: abandoning, letting go. Other meanings: elimination, effacement, abundance.
"Ta‘addi": oppression, transgression. Original meaning: exceeding the limit. Opposite: justice. Other meanings: corruption, causing harm.
Legally accepted personal reasoning whose general and special conditions are fulfilled.
"Dalīl" (pl. adillah): what leads to something destined. It is derived from "tadlīl", which means indicating something with a sign. Other meanings: sign, supplementary evidence, guide, origin.
Proofs that are established through speculation, opinion, and personal reasoning.
Allah's commandments, relating to the acts of the slaves either by way of demand or option.
The divine commandments pertaining to people's deeds, whether they are required to perform a certain deed or leave it or are given the choice.
Sources of Islamic legislation whose validity are not debated by the scholars of the Muslim Ummah. They are the Qur’an, the Sunnah, "ijmā‘" (consensus), and "qiyās" (analogy).
"Istiftā’": seeking "fatwa", which is an explanation or interpretation of something. It is derived from "futuwwah", which means strength - and "fata", which means: a strong, young man. Other meanings: inquiring, asking, seeking counsel, exploring.
"Istitā‘ah": the ability to do something. Opposite: inability. It is derived from "taw‘", which means: submission, responding. Other meanings: endurance, likelihood, capability, power.
Non-obligation of man to fulfill religious obligations and financial duties until evidence from the Shariah is established to this effect.
"Tarjīh": giving preponderance, giving preference. It is derived from "rujhān", which means: weight, increase. Other meanings: making inclined, strengthening, giving precedence.
A science whereby the general proofs of the Islamic jurisprudence are derived, and the manner of applying them is known, along with knowing the state and description of those to whom such proofs are applicable.
Scholars who fulfill the requirements of deducing legal rulings from their proofs.
"Khata’": error, slip, unintentional action. Original meaning: swerving from the intended course. Opposite: correctness, deliberateness. Other meanings: sin, guilt, grammatical mistake, or mistake in pronunciation (esp. in reciting the Qur’an).
"Shart": condition, requirement. It is derived from "sharat", which means mark.
"Darūrah": urgent need, necessity. It is derived from "darar", which means: straits, restriction. Opposite: benefit, spaciousness. Other meanings: hardship, severity, poverty.
"‘Āmmi" (pl. ‘awāmm): a noun that is attributed to "‘āmmah", which means multitudes of people. It is derived from "‘umūm", which means: comprehensiveness and encompassing - and from "‘ama", which means blindness. A "‘āmmi" is a person who cannot see the way.
"‘Azīmah'': determination, resolve, volition, obligation, necessity, duty. Original meaning: cutting off sharply. Other meanings: striving, patience, strength, toughness.
"Fāsid": invalid, decayed. Opposite: valid, sound.
A request by the legislator to avoid doing something without making this rule obligatory.
What has been transmitted from the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, of independent reasoning in one of the issues of the religion.
"Mubāh'': allowed, permitted. Opposite: forbidden. Original meaning: spaciousness. Other meanings: visible, licensed, lawful, absolute.
"Mukallaf": a person commanded to do something that needs effort.
Validity of an action according to the Shariah, whereby its consequences come into effect.
Being uncertain about one's state of ritual purity, regardless of whether the two possibilities are even or one of them is preponderant.
Forcing someone to do something or quit doing it.
Not doing something despite of being able to do it, whether it be intentionally or unintentionally.
Termination of the time designated for the waiting period of the divorced wife according to the Shariah.
A person’s eligibility to acquire rights, perform duties, and dispose of affairs.
Coercing someone to do something whose hidden reality contradicts what is apparent thereof, such as a sale.
Repelling something and preventing it from happening
Interests that are necessary for the establishment of the religion and life, such that if all or some of them are missing, life is ruined or disturbed.
Nullity and voidness of a statement or action because it does not comply with Shari‘ah (Islamic law).
Anything that is used as a means and a way to achieving something else.
The most likely place where something could exist.
The weaker of two opposed pieces of evidence, which is outweighed by the other, and thus it is preferable to act upon the other.
Whatever a person does willingly and leads to a consequence under the Shariah, whether this consequence is for the benefit of the doer or not.
Persistence and effectiveness of a contract and impossibility of annulling it except with a legitimate reason.
The absolute preponderance of one side over the other in such a way that the other side is totally discarded.
Giving freedom of choice to the one qualifed for religious obligations in ceratin matters
Firm decision to do or leave something.
It is an apparent consistent quality that accompanies a Shariah ruling in all cases such that it determines whether or not that ruling is applicable.
To preserve oneself against falling into prohibitions or abandoning a command in situations of doubt.
In analogy, it refers to the basic rule, as opposed to the subsidiary rule.
Replacing the apparent meaning of the word with another different meaning.
Confirming the presence of the cause, upon which there is an agreement based on a text, consensus or deduction, concerning a disputed case.
A word whose meaning cannot be understood independently, but something else explains and clarifies it.
To charge with burdensome tasks beyond one's power and capability.
Categorical proof that provides knowledge and evidence that reveals the truth.
Clarifying the speech to the listener and revealing its meaning, whether with words or actions.
The report narrated by one person or more and did not reach the level of "tawātur" (multiplicity of the sources of a report).
Correctness in all statements, actions and intentions.
A word that has same spelling and several meanings.
Perceiving something and realizing its reality through deep thinking and contemplation.
Failure to do something as prescribed by the Shariah.
Parting company with the main Muslim body by opposing the scholars' consensus and what is valid and correct.
Anything that is approved by reason or known through human intellect.
Reasoning and contemplation to extract the sound aspect of a matter and to reach the preponderant view regarding it based on the strongest assumption.
Everything that Allah and His Messenger, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, have prohibited from committing or violating.
Engaging in words, deeds, or beliefs which are neither obligatory nor recommended.
Doing something precisely and preventing it from being flawed or defective.
Establishing proof to confirm something or refute it.
Certain conditions that affect one's competence of performing Shariah duties either by elimination or diminishing.
It is that a term includes all its possible meanings in a certain context.
The proper performance of a deed by someone who is competent for religious duties in a way that he is not required to do it again.
Anything people who are competent for religious duties according to the Shariah say, do, or believe.
The possibility to perform an act of worship at the end of its prescribed time without being blamed for doing so.
The laws of previous heavenly-inspired religions that were authentically transmitted to us, Muslims.
A general comprehensive rule through which deduction of legal rulings is derived from the detailed proofs.
A term that signifies all individuals subsumed under it, without limitation.
A number of sciences which are used as a means to understanding the Qur’an and the Sunnah.
To inform someone of a religious ruling without obliging him to apply it.
Examining particular instances, or majority of such instances, to apply their ruling to a general instance that includes them.
Excluding some elements covered by a general phrase from its ruling by using special Arabic articles of exception, such as "illā" or the like.
"Al-Ākharan" is a term in the Hanafi school of thought which refers to the two Imams: Abu Yusuf and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan.
Despair of attaining any good.
Possessing or using something such as gold or silver containers for decoration purpose or the like.
Speaking in a manner that can be understood in multiple ways.
Qualifying a general term with restrictive characteristics and conditions.
Obscurity and lack of clarity.
Agreement of two things or more and their sharing the same description, place, type, or etc.
It is when the plaintiff or the witness says what necessitates invalidating his former statement, whether related to the rights of Allah or to the rights of people.
The judge’s postponement of issuing a sentence in a court case for some reason.
Anything that cannot exist independently of its source or origin.
Any expression used to indicate something that is exclusive.
Scrutinizing a text to determine the justification for a ruling by discarding insignificant factors and taking into consideration significant factors only.
Deducing the cause of a ruling which is established by (religious) text or consensus.
Something occurring after its designated or usual position, whether pertaining to time or place.
Excluding some connotations of a general text (expression).
A term that indicates one thing without restriction.
To delay something beyond its Shariah-assigned time or location.
The meaning that a word indicates without being explicitly expressed by the speaker.
Merging two or more acts of worship of the same kind.
The possibility of multiple meanings for a single thing.
Using speech that carries two possible meanings, one of which is true and the other is false, with the intention of manifesting that which is false.
Need for something which if not fulfilled will bring about hardship and harm.
The factor that results in the existence of something or causes its occurrence.
Knowledge that is primordial and does not require reasoning or speculation.
The one who is unable to provide a valid opinion, accepts without a proof the opinion of someone whose opinion doesn't have a Shar`iee value in creed issues.
The conclusion of something, and what the premises of a proposition lead to.
The concomitant signification of a word that is not an immediate meaning of it.
A word indicating part of its signification or meaning.
The existence of something being contingent upon its own existence; either with or without a means.
Terms that could indicate both correct and incorrect meanings in such a way that its meaning cannot be perceived except after scrutinizing and inquiry.
Something that cannot exist in the real world and can only be imagined.
Knowing something through one of the senses, such as sensing that one’s ritual purification has been nullified, through smell, touch or the like.
A general proposition that incorporates interrelated subdivisions.
Interpretation of a term by all of its significations.
Every proposition, whether minor or major, that composes syllogism.
A universal matter that is commonly shared by individuals and is subject to variation and division in such a way that if it is found in reality, then it becomes specific to that individual.
Knowledge that is acquired through investigation and logical inference.
Lack of reason that drives one to do what would harm him despite knowing of its bad consequences.
Using a word to denote a meaning other than its original one if there is a relation between the two meanings and a supplementary evidence for using the alternate meaning rather than the original one.
What has one meaning and various names.
The spoken word that has a meaning.
Two things sharing one meaning.
Issues and premises that develop in one's mind without any reason that necessitates acknowledging them.
The divergence between nouns and names.
Having several names referring to a single entity.
Forming an image of something in the mind and realizing its essence without any negation or affirmation.
Using words for their original literal meaning.
A term that holds two or more meanings; one of which is more preponderant than the other(s).
When analogy is used in an invalid way to draw a ruling therewith.
Contradiction of an analogy to textual evidence or scholarly consensus.
Terms and phrases that indicate the will of the speaker and the kind of action he is performing, like a sale transaction and the like.
A piece of news liable to be either true or false.
Considering a two-sided thing, and approaching it from the side that one wills.
Divine commandments that are related to making something a cause, a condition, or an impediment of another thing; or with something being valid, invalid, a concession, to be performed, to be made up for, etc.
Sources of Islamic legislation that are contested by the scholars, such as the sayings of the Companions, etc.
Perception based on the mind's thinking, reflection, and inference.
A word that diverges from others in name and meaning, such as "man" and "horse", which are different.