Disagreement - اخْتِلَافٌ

"Ikhtilāf": dispute, disagreement, contradiction, reversal. Opposite: agreement. It is derived from "khilāfah", which means: succession and replacement of something by another. Other meanings: variation, change, dispersion.

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Debate/Argumentation - جدل

"Jadal": intense discord. It is derived from "jadal" and "mujādalah", which mean debate, dispute. Original meaning: strength, solidity.

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Giving religious Fatwa/rulings - إفتاء

"Iftā’": the answer to a question. Other meanings: clarification of something obscure or confusing.

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Clear/Unambiguous verses - الآيَاتُ المُحْكَمَةُ

The clear, unambiguous verses whose meaning is not hidden from anyone.

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Difference based on variation - اخْتِلَافُ التَّنَوُّعِ

Conflict between two or more valid non-contradictory opinions which can be reconciled.

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Outweighed - مَرْجُوحٌ

The weaker of two opposed pieces of evidence, which is outweighed by the other, and thus it is preferable to act upon the other.

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General - عَامٌّ

A term that signifies all individuals subsumed under it, without limitation.

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Induction - اسْتِقْراءٌ

Examining particular instances, or majority of such instances, to apply their ruling to a general instance that includes them.

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Brevity/Abridgment - إِجْمالٌ

Speaking in a manner that can be understood in multiple ways.

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Restricting - مُقَيَّدٌ

Qualifying a general term with restrictive characteristics and conditions.

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Adjournment - تَوقُّفٌ

The judge’s postponement of issuing a sentence in a court case for some reason.

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Extracting justification for a ruling - تَنْقِيحُ المَناطِ

Scrutinizing a text to determine the justification for a ruling by discarding insignificant factors and taking into consideration significant factors only.

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Extracting/Identifying the cause - تَخْرِيجُ المَناطِ

Deducing the cause of a ruling which is established by (religious) text or consensus.

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Choice - اختيار

Considering a two-sided thing, and approaching it from the side that one wills.

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