"Ikhtilāf": dispute, disagreement, contradiction, reversal. Opposite: agreement. It is derived from "khilāfah", which means: succession and replacement of something by another. Other meanings: variation, change, dispersion.
"Jadal": intense discord. It is derived from "jadal" and "mujādalah", which mean debate, dispute. Original meaning: strength, solidity.
"Iftā’": the answer to a question. Other meanings: clarification of something obscure or confusing.
"Tarjīh": giving preponderance, giving preference. It is derived from "rujhān", which means: weight, increase. Other meanings: making inclined, strengthening, giving precedence.
The clear, unambiguous verses whose meaning is not hidden from anyone.
Conflict between two or more valid non-contradictory opinions which can be reconciled.
The weaker of two opposed pieces of evidence, which is outweighed by the other, and thus it is preferable to act upon the other.
A term that signifies all individuals subsumed under it, without limitation.
Examining particular instances, or majority of such instances, to apply their ruling to a general instance that includes them.
Speaking in a manner that can be understood in multiple ways.
Qualifying a general term with restrictive characteristics and conditions.
The judge’s postponement of issuing a sentence in a court case for some reason.
Scrutinizing a text to determine the justification for a ruling by discarding insignificant factors and taking into consideration significant factors only.
Deducing the cause of a ruling which is established by (religious) text or consensus.
Considering a two-sided thing, and approaching it from the side that one wills.