Unlawful - حَرامٌ

Everything that is definitively prohibited under Shariah.

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Desirability - اسْتِحْبابٌ

Request of the Lawgiver (Allah) to do something in a way that is not binding.

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Obligation - وُجُوبٌ

Allah's ordainment a certain act to be done by way of obligation.

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Undesirability - كَراهَةٌ

A statment of the Lawgiver (Allah) ordering to avoid something, but not in strictly prohibitory terms.

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Prohibition - تَحْرِيمٌ

A firm command by the Almighty Lawgiver to refrain from a particular action.

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Misguidance - ضلال

Deviation from the truth, intentionally or unintentionally.

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Islamic law - الشريعة

The clear course in the religion that includes the beliefs, rulings, and ethics.

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Forbidden things - محظورات

Everything that is definitively prohibited under Shariah.

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Permissible - جَائِزٌ

Everything permitted and sanctioned by the Shariah.

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Duress/Compulsion - إِكْراهٌ

"Ikrāh": forcing someone to do something he dislikes. It is derived from "kurh", which means dislike.

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Good manners/Politeness - أَدَبٌ

"Adab": good manners and noble actions. Its original meaning is calling, as it calls people to what is praiseworthy.

Translated into: English Urdu Indonesian

Sin - إِثْمٌ

"Ithm": sin, the sin that makes the sinner deserving of punishment. Original meaning: slowness, delay.

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Invalid/False - باطِلٌ

"Bātil": false, invalid. Opposite: true, valid. Original meaning: going away or remaining for a short time.

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Obligation - فَرْضٌ

"Fard": cutting, obligation, appraisal.

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Abrogation - نَسْخٌ

"Naskh": removing and moving, copying. Original meaning: replacing something with another. Other meanings: converting, changing, abrogating.

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Forbiddance/Prohibition - نَهْيٌ

"Nahy": stopping, rebuking, preventing. Opposite: command. It is derived from "intihā’", which means: stopping at a certain point. Other meanings: attainment, arrival, prohibition, rejection, dismissal.

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Disliked - مَكْرُوهٌ

"Makrūh": detestable, abominable. Opposite: loved, recommended. It is derived from "karāhah", which means hardship, distress, and from "kurh" or "karh", which means: abhorrence. "Makrūh" is what one hates and deems difficult. Other meanings: something disallowed, rejected, hardship, harshness.

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Defect/Corruption - فَسادٌ

"Fasād": damage or defect in something. Opposite: soundness, validity. Original meaning: departure from a moderate state.

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Prohibition/Ban - حَظْرٌ

"Hazhr": banning. Opposite: permitting.

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Legitimacy - مَشْرُوعِيَّةٌ

"Mashrū‘iyyah": legitimacy. It is derived from "mashrū‘", which means: clarified, plain, legitimate. The original meaning of "shar‘": revealing, explanation.

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Committing a sin/crime - إِجْرامٌ

"Ijrām": committing a "jurm": crime or sin. "Ijrām" is derived from "jarm", which means: cutting off or earning. A sin is called a "jurm" because it is something earned by its perpetrator. Other meanings: corrupting, hurting someone.

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Invalidation/Rendering worthless - إِحْباطٌ

"Ihbāt": annulment, invalidation. It is derived from "habt", which means: an animal eating so much fodder that its belly swells and then dies.

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Truth - حَقٌّ

"Al-haqq": the truth, the constant. Opposite: falsehood, error. Other meanings: what is due, necessary, certain.

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Pardon/Forgiveness - عَفْوٌ

"‘Afw": forgiveness, pardon, refraining from punishment. Original meaning: abandoning, letting go. Other meanings: elimination, effacement, abundance.

Translated into: English Urdu Indonesian

Obligation-creating rulings/Defining laws - أحكام تكليفية

Allah's commandments, relating to the acts of the slaves either by way of demand or option.

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Shariah rulings - أحكام شرعية

The divine commandments pertaining to people's deeds, whether they are required to perform a certain deed or leave it or are given the choice.

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Ability - اسْتِطَاعَةٌ

"Istitā‘ah": the ability to do something. Opposite: inability. It is derived from "taw‘", which means: submission, responding. Other meanings: endurance, likelihood, capability, power.

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Original non-liability - بَرَاءَةٌ أَصْلِيَّةٌ

Non-obligation of man to fulfill religious obligations and financial duties until evidence from the Shariah is established to this effect.

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Necessity - ضَرُورَةٌ

"Darūrah": urgent need, necessity. It is derived from "darar", which means: straits, restriction. Opposite: benefit, spaciousness. Other meanings: hardship, severity, poverty.

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Original ruling - عَزِيمَةٌ

"‘Azīmah'': determination, resolve, volition, obligation, necessity, duty. Original meaning: cutting off sharply. Other meanings: striving, patience, strength, toughness.

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Undesirability qua blamelessness - كَرَاهَةُ تَنْزِيهٍ

A request by the legislator to avoid doing something without making this rule obligatory.

Translated into: English

Validity - صِحَّةٌ

Validity of an action according to the Shariah, whereby its consequences come into effect.

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Compulsion/Obligation - إِلْزامٌ

Forcing someone to do something or quit doing it.

Translated into: English Urdu Indonesian

Ending/Termination - انْقِضاءٌ

Termination of the time designated for the waiting period of the divorced wife according to the Shariah.

Translated into: English Urdu Indonesian

Leaving/Abandoning - تَرْكٌ

Not doing something despite of being able to do it, whether it be intentionally or unintentionally.

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coercion - تَلْجِئَةٌ

Coercing someone to do something whose hidden reality contradicts what is apparent thereof, such as a sale.

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Nullity - بُطْلانٌ

Nullity and voidness of a statement or action because it does not comply with Shari‘ah (Islamic law).

Translated into: English Indonesian

Most likely place/situation - مَظِنّةٌ

The most likely place where something could exist.

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Determination/Resolution - عَزْمٌ

Firm decision to do or leave something.

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Precaution - احتياط

To preserve oneself against falling into prohibitions or abandoning a command in situations of doubt.

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Making defective - إِخْلَالٌ

Failure to do something as prescribed by the Shariah.

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Prohibitions - حُرُماتٌ

Everything that Allah and His Messenger, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, have prohibited from committing or violating.

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Precision/Accuracy - إِحْكامٌ

Doing something precisely and preventing it from being flawed or defective.

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Deduction/Inference - استدلال

Establishing proof to confirm something or refute it.

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Impediments to legal competence - عَوارِضُ الأَهْلِيَّةِ

Certain conditions that affect one's competence of performing Shariah duties either by elimination or diminishing.

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Inclusiveness - عُـمُومٌ

It is that a term includes all its possible meanings in a certain context.

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Proper/Sufficient fulfillment of a duty - إِجْزَاءٌ

The proper performance of a deed by someone who is competent for religious duties in a way that he is not required to do it again.

Translated into: English Urdu Indonesian

Delaying - تَرَاخِي

The possibility to perform an act of worship at the end of its prescribed time without being blamed for doing so.

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Legal opinion - فُتْـيا

To inform someone of a religious ruling without obliging him to apply it.

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Combination/Union - اتِّحَادٌ

Agreement of two things or more and their sharing the same description, place, type, or etc.

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Acquiring/Keeping - اتَّخاذٌ

Possessing or using something such as gold or silver containers for decoration purpose or the like.

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Delay - تَأخيرٌ

To delay something beyond its Shariah-assigned time or location.

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Particularization/Specification of a general text - تخصيص

Excluding some connotations of a general text (expression).

Translated into: English Bosnian

Explanatory/Declaratory rulings - أحكام وضعية

Divine commandments that are related to making something a cause, a condition, or an impediment of another thing; or with something being valid, invalid, a concession, to be performed, to be made up for, etc.

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