Puberty - بُلُوغٌ

A strength that comes to a child and transforms him into a man or a woman.

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Undesirability - كَراهَةٌ

A statment of the Lawgiver (Allah) ordering to avoid something, but not in strictly prohibitory terms.

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Mind/Intellect - عقل

The cognitive instinct by which Allah Almighty has distinguished man from other living beings. Loss of mind renders the person no longer accountable for religious duties.

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Sin - إِثْمٌ

"Ithm": sin, the sin that makes the sinner deserving of punishment. Original meaning: slowness, delay.

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Discernment - تَمْيِيزٌ

"Tamyīz": isolating and sorting out something; keeping something away; separating and distinguishing between similar things.

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Assignment/Obligation - تَكْلِيفٌ

"Taklīf": commanding things that one finds difficult.

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Insane - مَجْنُونٌ

"Majnūn": someone who has lost his mind. It is derived from "junūn" and "jinnah", which mean: loss of mind. Original meaning: concealment, hiding, covering.

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Hardship - مَشَقَّةٌ

"Mashaqqah": hardship, burden, exhaustion, suffering, difficulty.

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Foolishness - سَفاهَةٌ

"Safāhah": foolishness. Original meaning: frivolity, recklessness, imprudence, crookedness and confusion. Opposite: forbearance, rationality.

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Inability - عَجْزٌ

"‘Ajz": weakness. Original meaning: falling behind. Opposite: ability.

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Obligation-creating rulings/Defining laws - أحكام تكليفية

Allah's commandments, relating to the acts of the slaves either by way of demand or option.

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Ability - اسْتِطَاعَةٌ

"Istitā‘ah": the ability to do something. Opposite: inability. It is derived from "taw‘", which means: submission, responding. Other meanings: endurance, likelihood, capability, power.

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Error - خَطَأٌ

"Khata’": error, slip, unintentional action. Original meaning: swerving from the intended course. Opposite: correctness, deliberateness. Other meanings: sin, guilt, grammatical mistake, or mistake in pronunciation (esp. in reciting the Qur’an).

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Competence/Eligibility - أهْلِيَّةٌ

A person’s eligibility to acquire rights, perform duties, and dispose of affairs.

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Bindingness - لُزُومٌ

Persistence and effectiveness of a contract and impossibility of annulling it except with a legitimate reason.

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Freedom of choice - تَخْيِيرٌ

Giving freedom of choice to the one qualifed for religious obligations in ceratin matters

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Overburdening - إعنات

To charge with burdensome tasks beyond one's power and capability.

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Overburdening oneself/Artificiality - تَكَلُّـفٌ

Engaging in words, deeds, or beliefs which are neither obligatory nor recommended.

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Impediments to legal competence - عَوارِضُ الأَهْلِيَّةِ

Certain conditions that affect one's competence of performing Shariah duties either by elimination or diminishing.

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Proper/Sufficient fulfillment of a duty - إِجْزَاءٌ

The proper performance of a deed by someone who is competent for religious duties in a way that he is not required to do it again.

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Deeds of the liable - أَفْعَالُ الـمُكَلَّفِينَ

Anything people who are competent for religious duties according to the Shariah say, do, or believe.

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Stupidity - حُمْقٌ

Lack of reason that drives one to do what would harm him despite knowing of its bad consequences.

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Speech - قَولٌ

The spoken word that has a meaning.

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Choice - اختيار

Considering a two-sided thing, and approaching it from the side that one wills.

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