Polytheism - شِرْكٌ

Setting up equals to Allah Almighty from among the created beings in matters that are exclusive to Him.

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Declaring someone a disbeliever - تَكْفِيرٌ

Judging a Muslim to be an apostate.

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Tribalism/Fanaticism - عَصَبِيَّةٌ

To defend those you care about whether they are right or wrong, in support of your tribe, group, color, or the like.

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Disbelief - كُفْرٌ

It is the opposite of Islam or a statement, act, belief, doubt, or neglect of an obligation which takes one out of the fold of Islam.

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Increase and decrease of faith - زيادة الإيمان ونقصانه

The increase of a believer’s faith due to performing acts of obedience and goodness, and its decrease on account of committing sins and prohibitions.

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The Rightly-Guided Caliphs - الخُلفاءُ الرّاشِدُونَ

The first four Caliphs, who successively ruled Muslims after the Prophet’s death. They are Abu Bakr as-Siddīq, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb, ‘Uthmān ibn ‘Affān, and ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib (may Allah be pleased with them).

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Misguidance - ضلال

Deviation from the truth, intentionally or unintentionally.

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Magic/Sorcery - سحر

Amulets, knots, and talismans that magicians use with the devils to cause harm to someone in his body, mind, will, or the like.

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Allies/Friends of Allah - أولياء

The pious believers who are constantly mindful of Allah Almighty in all of their affairs. Hence, they obey His commands and avoid His prohibitions out of fear of His punishment and wrath, and in pursuit of His pleasure and Paradise.

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Minor polytheism - شرك أصغر

Everything that the Shariah has forbidden which leads to polytheism, and has been called "Shirk" (polytheism) in the texts, and it does not reach the degree of major polytheism.

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Extremism/Immoderation - غُلُـوٌّ

Exceeding the Shariah-permitted limit in beliefs or actions.

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Natural disposition - فطرة

Islam and monotheism.

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Religious Innovation - اِبْتِداعٌ

Introducing a new way in the religion for the purpose of exaggerating in worshiping Allah Almighty.

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Following personal desires - اتباع الهوى

Acting upon something other than the truth, whether in terms of speech, deeds, or beliefs.

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Islam - الإسلام

Surrendering to Allah through monotheism, submitting to Him through obedience, and disowning polytheism and polytheists.

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Faith - الإيمان

Firm belief that entails acceptance and compliance. It is speech by the tongue, belief within the heart, and actions by the body parts. It increases by obedience and decreases by disobedience.

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Religious innovation - بدعة

Everything newly introduced in the religion, beliefs and acts of worship, without any proof from Shariah.

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Ostentation/Show off - رياء

Performing an act of worship for something other than the sake of Allah Almighty, such as doing it in order to be seen and praised by people.

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Polytheism in love - الشِّرْكُ في المَحَبَّةِ

Devoting love, which entails glorification, submission, and obedience to other than Allah Almighty.

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Polytheism in obedience - الشِّرْكُ في الطَّاعَةِ

Obeying other than Allah Almighty in changing the rulings of Shariah and turning the lawful into unlawful and vice versa.

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Major sins - كَبائِرٌ

Any sin that entails a prescribed punishment in this life or a threat of punishment in the Hereafter or leads to curse, wrath, or negation of faith.

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Disobedient person - فاسِقٌ

"Fāsiq": one who departs from obedience and uprightness. Original meaning: something exiting something else in order to corrupt it.

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Duress/Compulsion - إِكْراهٌ

"Ikrāh": forcing someone to do something he dislikes. It is derived from "kurh", which means dislike.

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Reviving the Sunnah - إحْياءُ السُّنَّةِ

Tījāniyyah

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Apostasy - رِدَّةٌ

"Riddah": return, conversion. Other meanings: reversion, rejection, denial, transition.

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Divination - عِرافَةٌ

"‘Irāfah": the profession of the fortune-teller, soothsayer, or astrologer who claim to know the unseen and the future.

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Humble submissiveness - خُشُوعٌ - يحذف

"Khushū‘": submission, quiescence, subservience. A person who has "khushū‘" in their prayer is wholeheartedly engaged in it. Other meanings: calm, peacefulness.

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Soothsayer - كاهِنٌ

"Kāhin": a person who claims to know the unseen and hidden things. It is originally derived from "takahhun", which means: estimation, thinking, conjecture, lying.

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Idolater - وَثَنِيٌّ

"Wathani": idolater, idol worshiper, pagan. "Wathaniyyah": worship of idols and stones. it is derived from "wathan", which means: an idol or stone that is worshiped. "Wathan" is derived from "wathn", which means: steadiness. "Wathn" also means: power, plenty.

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Certitude - يقين

"Yaqīn": firmness, certitude, verification and knowledge that is free from doubt. Opposite: doubt, suspicion. Original meaning: stillness, prominence, permanence, steadiness.

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Attachment to other than Allah - تعلق بغير الله

Inclination of the heart towards something other than Allah in bringing about benefit or warding off harm.

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Amulets - تميمة

"Tamīmah" (pl. Tamā’im): a string or beads that the Arabs used to hang on their children, claiming that they protect them from the evil eye, as if intending that they are the perfect remedy and the desired cure. It is derived from "tamām", which means: perfection.

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Statues - تماثيل

"Timthāl" (pl. Tamāthīl): something made to resemble one of the creatures of Allah Almighty that has a soul and a form.

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Astrology - تَنْجِيمٌ

"Tanjīm": astrology, looking at the stars. It indicates rise and appearance.

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Going to extremes/Excess in exaggeration - تنطع

"Tanattu‘": going deep into something and exaggerating and bragging about it. It is derived from "nati‘", which is the palate (the top part of the inside of the mouth). Then it came to be used for all types of exaggeration in words and actions.

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Humility/Modesty - تواضع

"Tawādu‘": humility, manifestation of submissiveness. Opposite: arrogance, haughtiness. It is derived from "wad‘", which means: putting down and lowering. Other meanings: humbleness, docility, gentleness

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Sincerity - إخلاص

"Ikhlās": purity, filtration, refinement, selection. The term was later used to refer to pure monotheism and avoidance of showing off in performing acts of worship.

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Despair - يأس

"Ya’s": despair. Opposite: hope. "Ya’s" is to lose hope for something.

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Trials/Tests - فتن

“Fitan” (sing. fitnah): trials, tests, tribulations. It is derived from “fatn”, which means: burning.

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Idols - أصنام

"Asnām" (sing. sanam): a statue that is carved from wood, silver, or brass and is worshiped. It also means an image that is worshiped. Original meaning: wicked and foul.

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Talisman - طلسم

"Tilsam" (or talsam): an undisclosed thing. "Mutalsam": undisclosed, obscure. "Talsamah": reading or writing something obscure. It is an Arabicized Greek term that refers to anything that is obscure and enigmatic, such as riddles and puzzles. it is said to be derived from "talsamah", which means: changing a thing and transforming it from one state to another.

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Disobedience - مَعْصِيَةٌ

"Ma‘siyah"or "‘isyān": violating and disobeying the commandments. Opposite: obedience.

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Destructive sins - موبقات

"Mūbiqāt" (sing. mūbiqah): sins that lead one to ruin and loss.

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Rival - نِدٌّ

"Nidd": counterpart, equal, rival. It refers only to someone at odds with the person he resembles. Original meaning: disunion, alienation.

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Undoing magical spells - نشرة

"Nushrah": an incantation whereby a mad or sick person is treated.

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Ignorance - جهل بالاعتقاد

"Jahl": ignorance. Opposite: knowledge. Other meanings: foolishness.

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Hidden polytheism - شرك خفي

Associating others with Allah in intentions and actions of the heart.

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Branches of faith - شعب الإيمان

All the intentions, deeds, and words that Allah the Exalted loves and is pleased with and that bring one closer to Him.

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Immorality/Debauchery - فجور

"Fujūr": immorality and disobedience, like lying and adultery. Original meaning: going forth, spreading. It is also said to mean "tilting", as a "fāsiq" swerves away from the truth.

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Belief in bad omens - طِيرَةٌ

"Tiyarah": pessimism. It is derived from "tayr", which means: bird, like the crow.

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Disbelief of denial - كفر الجحود

"Juhūd": denial, rejection. Opposite: acknowledgment. Original meaning: scarcity of anything.

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Deficiency of faith - نقصان الإيمان

Weakness of faith that afflicts the believers when they commit acts of disobedience and prohibitions.

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Unity of existence - وحدة الوجود

A belief based on the claim that the existence of Allah and the existence of His creation are one and the same.

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Steadfastness - ثَباتٌ

"Thabāt": stillness, stability. Original meaning: continuity, permanence. Opposite: end, coming to a halt. Other meanings: uprightness, adherence.

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Repelling - تَنْفِيرٌ

"Tanfīr": pushing away, repelling. Original meaning: impelling someone to run away and escape. Opposite: endearing, giving good news.

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Invalidation/Rendering worthless - إِحْباطٌ

"Ihbāt": annulment, invalidation. It is derived from "habt", which means: an animal eating so much fodder that its belly swells and then dies.

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Kindness/Excellence - الإِحْسان

"Ihsān": doing what is "hasan", which means: good. Opposite: ugliness, in bad state. Other meanings: excellence, perfection.

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Shyness/Modesty - حَياءٌ

"Hayā’": modesty, shyness. It is derived from "hayāh", which is: life. Opposite: insolence, audacity.

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Disobedience - عِصْيانٌ

"‘Isyān": disobedience, contradiction. Opposite: obedience, compliance. It is derived from "‘asw", which means: pulling, collecting.

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Obscenity/Immorality - فُحْشٌ

"Fuhsh": ugly and evil speech or deed. Original meaning: increase, exceeding the limit.

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Honoring sacred ordinances - تَعْظِيمُ الحُرُماتِ

Tījāniyyah

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Moderation - تَوسُّطٌ

"Tawassut": being straight and level. Original meaning: uprightness, moderateness. Other meanings: choosing what is best.

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Good morals - حُسْنُ الخُلُقِ

Tījāniyyah

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Supernatural act - كَرامَةٌ

"Karāmah": dignity, honor. It is derived from "karam", which means generosity, abundance. Opposite: stinginess. Other meanings: nobility, grace.

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Divination - كهانة

"Kahānah": the claim to have knowledge of the hidden and concealed matters. It is derived from "takahhun", which means: fabrication, conjecture, speculation, lying.

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Minor hypocrisy - نفاق أصغر

Nonconformity between what one reveals and what he conceals when it comes to duties by revealing obedience and concealing disobedience.

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Suppressing anger - كَظْمُ الغَيْظِ

Tījāniyyah

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Orphan sponsorship - كَفالَةُ اليَتِيمِ

Tījāniyyah

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Postponing deeds - إرجاء

"Irjā’": delaying, postponing, granting respite. Other meanings: giving "rajā’" (hope).

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Deviation from divine signs - الإلحاد في آيات الله

Tījāniyyah

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Excessive praise - إطراء

"Itrā’": excessive praise. It is derived from "tarāwah", which means leniency, newness.

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Deviation - إِلْحادٌ

"Ilhād": deviating and turning away from something. It is derived from "lahd", which means: the niche dug on the side of the grave, not the middle. Other meanings: oppression, deviation from uprightness, religion, or the truth.

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The Trinity - تثليث

"Tathlīth": being three in number.

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Dissimulation - تَـقِيَّةٌ

"Taqiyyah": caution, seeking protection from evil and harm.

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Means to polytheism - ذرائع الشرك

Tījāniyyah

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Perfection of faith - كَمالُ الإيمانِ

Performing what is within one's ability of the obligatory and voluntary acts of worship, along with abandoning all prohibitions, which entitles him to be admitted into Paradise and saved from Hell.

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Bare minimum faith - مُطْلَقُ الإيمانِ

A description of the least amount of faith that a Muslim should have, without which his Islam would be invalid.

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Aversion caused by magic - صَرف

Magic aimed at separating the spouses and causing hatred and dislike between them.

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Polytheism in the Oneness of Lordship - شرك في توحيد الربوبية

Tījāniyyah

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Utmost truthfulness - صديقية

"Siddīqiyyah": constant, utmost truthfulness. It is derived from "siddīq", which means a person who always tells the truth and adheres to it and whose words match his deeds. Opposite of truthfulness: falsehood.

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Libeling Islam - طَعْنٌ في الدِّينِ

Disparaging any part of the religion of Islam and criticizing its rulings.

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Exaggeration with the righteous - غلو في الصالحين

Transgressing the limits of the Shariah in dealing with people of religiosity and righteousness by raising them above the status set for them by Allah Almighty and placing them in a rank that suits none but Allah. This is represented in seeking their help in adversities, circumambulating their graves, seeking blessings in the dust in which they are buried, and the like.

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Soothsayer - عراف

"‘Arrāf": hyperbolic form of the word "‘ārif"," which refers to soothsayers, fortune-tellers, and astrologers who claim to have knowledge of the unseen and the future.

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Despair - قُنُوطٌ

"Qunūt": hopelessness, extreme despair. It is derived from "qant", which means prevention. Opposite: hope. Other meanings: giving up hope.

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Disbelief out of defiance and arrogance - كُفْرُ الإباءِ والاسْتِكْبارِ

Tījāniyyah

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Major disbelief - كفر أكبر

Tījāniyyah

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Minor disbelief - كُفْرٌ أَصْغَر

Tījāniyyah

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Pillars - أركان

The foundations upon which something is established and without which it cannot be achieved.

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Being hostile towards Allah and His Messenger - محاربة لله ورسوله

Tījāniyyah

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Impediments of Takfīr - موانع التكفير

Tījāniyyah

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Major creedal hypocrisy - نفاق أكبر اعتقادي

Tījāniyyah

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Idol - وثن

"Wathan": idol, a stone that is worshiped. It is derived from "wathn", which means permanence, stillness. Other meanings: statue, cross.

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Means/Seeking means - وسيلة

"Wasīlah": the means getting one closer to someone else. It is derived from "tawassul", which means desire, pursuit. Other meanings: cause, path to something.

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Invented matters/Innovatioins in religion - محدثات الأمور

All what goes against the Qur’an, the Sunnah, or the consensus of the early Muslim generations ("salaf") of beliefs and forms of worship which people have invented in the religion based on their personal desires and opinions.

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Divine inspiration - إِلْهامٌ

Inspiration that Allah casts into a person's heart to urge him to either do something or avoid it.

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Monasticism - رَهْبانِيَّةٌ

Extremism in worship, abandoning the worldly life, and refraining from mixing with people.

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Divination - اسْتِقْسامٌ

Seeking foreknowledge of one's fate and luck by using divining arrows and the like.

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Seeking rain from stars - استسقاء بالأنواء

Seeking rain from or attributing rainfall to the stars deducing it from their setting and rising.

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Celibacy - تبتل

Abstaining from women by refraining from marriage and focusing on worship.

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Inclination to monotheism/Devout religiousness - حَنَفٌ

Turning to Allah the Almighty and turning away from anything other than Him by turning from polytheism towards monotheism, and from misguidance towards uprightness.

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Closeness - زُلْفَى

Closeness to Allah by performing His commandments, avoiding His prohibitions, seeking His pleasure, and aid in fulfilling one's needs.

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Love amulet/charm - تولة

A type of magic that is made to endear the woman to her husband and the man to his wife.

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Taking as allies - تولي

Loving polytheism and the polytheists; supporting the disbelievers financially, physically, and with counsel; lending them support against Muslims, praising and defending them.

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Goodness - خير

A comprehensive word that refers to all acts of righteousness and obedience, including the beliefs, deeds, and statements.

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Anomaly - شُذُوذُ

Parting company with the main Muslim body by opposing the scholars' consensus and what is valid and correct.

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Gnosis/Knowledge - عِرْفانٌ

Perceiving something and realizing its reality through deep thinking and contemplation.

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Love magic - عطف

A type of magic claimed to endear the husband to his wife and the wife to her husband.

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Star - نجم

Refers to any celestial body.

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Prohibitions - حُرُماتٌ

Everything that Allah and His Messenger, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, have prohibited from committing or violating.

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An Equal - نَظِيرٌ

Any creation of Allah that is claimed to be equivalent to Him in His rights of lordship, worship, and names and attributes.

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Realization - المَعْرِفَةٌ

Abstract perception that entails no ruling.

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Denial - إِنْكارٌ

Denial of something by one's heart and tongue and rejection to believe in the truth or admit it.

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Thick Cover - ران

The darkness of sins that covers the heart and pervades it until it blinds it from seeing the truth and submitting to it.

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Polytheism of supplication - شِرْكٌ في الدَّعْوَةِ

Invoking other than Allah, the Almighty, to do such things that only Allah, the Exalted, can do, like removing distress or bringing benefits.

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Polytheism in intention and will - شرك النية والإرادة

When a person performs an act of worship not for the sake of Allah, the Almighty; instead, with this act of worship, they intend, completely or partially, to achieve a wordy gain, show off, or the like.

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Passion/Excessive love - عِشْقٌ

Excessive love along with desire.

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Sealing - طَبْعٌ

Covering a person's heart to make him heedless of doing what benefits him and abandoning what harms him.

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Taking omens from birds - عِيافَةٌ

Claiming knowledge of the unseen by observing movements of the birds, their sounds and the like.

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Cauterization - كي

"It is burning the skin with a heated instrument for therapeutic purposes

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Intent - قصد

Decisive will.

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Cowardliness - جبن

Fear and weakness that keep a person dismayed and prevent him form going forward.

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Division - تَفَرُّق

Turning away from the truth and its people.

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Skepticism/Doubtfulness - ريب

Doubt coupled with internal anxiety and confusion, resulting in baseless ill assumption and accusation.

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The Occultation - غَيْبَةٌ

Disappearance of the Imam from people and his reappearance in the future.

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Opposing Allah and His Messenger - محادة لله ورسوله

Opposing Allah and His Messenger, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, and obstinately defying them while showing animosity to Islam and the Muslims.

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Follower/Committed one/Disciple - مريد

A person detached from his will, in admiration of his shaykh (mentor), submitting to him, detached from all other things in devotion to Allah, the Exalted, and turning to Him in totality.

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Separation - افتراق

Separating from Ahl-us-Sunnah wa al-Jamā‘ah regarding any of the unequivocal principles of religion that are authentically established by definitive text or consensus, whether they are related to beliefs or actions or to the supreme interests of the Muslim nation, such as armed rebellion against the Muslim leaders and their communities.

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Featherless arrows - أَزْلامٌ

The arrows that the Arabs used in pre-Islamic times as an augury to predict whether a matter was good or evil in order to make a decision regarding it.

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Requesting repentance - اسْتِتابَةٌ

Asking a person who was formerly Muslim and became an apostate (a disbeliever) to repent and return to Islam.

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Exception - اسْتِثْناءٌ

Excluding some elements covered by a general phrase from its ruling by using special Arabic articles of exception, such as "illā" or the like.

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Transfer of inheritance - تَناسُخٌ

The transfer of the share of an heir to his own heirs by his death before the estate of the first deceased is divided.

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Sin - حوْبٌ

Major or minor sins that one commits.

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Dye - صِبغة

The religion of Allah Almighty, which he chose for His slaves, and the natural disposition with which He created humans.

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Powerful evil jinn/Afreet - عِفريت

The rebellious evil jinn that is cunning and malicious.

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Belittlement - تهاون

Negligence and belittlement of religion, while being careless about it and about fulfilling its rights.

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The Conjunction 'if' - لَوْ

An article that denotes wishing. It indicates that the occurrence of the second clause is conditional upon the occurrence of the first clause.

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Disobedience of Allah - فسوق

Disobedience of Allah The Almighty and His Messenger, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, by abandoning religious obligations or committing prohibitions.

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Self-effacement - اِصْطِلامٌ

A state that comes upon the heart and makes one unaware of his thoughts and presence.

Translated into: English French

Objection - اعتراض

The abstention of the heart and the limbs from showing contentment, submission, and compliance with the truth.

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A form of divination - طَرْقٌ

Foretelling the unseen by drawing a line on the ground, casting pebbles, etc.

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The named entity - مُسَمَّى

The known specific meaning that is indicated by a name/noun.

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Speech - قَولٌ

The spoken word that has a meaning.

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Abhorrence - اِشْمِئْزازٌ

Aversion and disdain to accept the truth, with this being physically manifest.

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Make difficult - تعسير

Adopting a hard-line approach in worship and exceeding the proper limits with regards to the religious commands and prohibitions.

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Spiritual states - أَحْوالٌ

Meanings and perceptions that pass in the heart without one's intention or effort and that do not last.

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Exception regarding faith - استثناء في الإيمان

That a person makes his faith contingent upon the will of Allah.

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A nocturnal bird - هامة

A small nocturnal bird.

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