Extremism/Immoderation - غُلُـوٌّ

Exceeding the Shariah-permitted limit in beliefs or actions.

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Religious Innovation - اِبْتِداعٌ

Introducing a new way in the religion for the purpose of exaggerating in worshiping Allah Almighty.

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Following personal desires - اتباع الهوى

Acting upon something other than the truth, whether in terms of speech, deeds, or beliefs.

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Religious innovation - بدعة

Everything newly introduced in the religion, beliefs and acts of worship, without any proof from Shariah.

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Going to extremes/Excess in exaggeration - تنطع

"Tanattu‘": going deep into something and exaggerating and bragging about it. It is derived from "nati‘", which is the palate (the top part of the inside of the mouth). Then it came to be used for all types of exaggeration in words and actions.

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Trials/Tests - فتن

“Fitan” (sing. fitnah): trials, tests, tribulations. It is derived from “fatn”, which means: burning.

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Hidden polytheism - شرك خفي

Associating others with Allah in intentions and actions of the heart.

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Repelling - تَنْفِيرٌ

"Tanfīr": pushing away, repelling. Original meaning: impelling someone to run away and escape. Opposite: endearing, giving good news.

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Moderation - تَوسُّطٌ

"Tawassut": being straight and level. Original meaning: uprightness, moderateness. Other meanings: choosing what is best.

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Exaggeration with the righteous - غلو في الصالحين

Transgressing the limits of the Shariah in dealing with people of religiosity and righteousness by raising them above the status set for them by Allah Almighty and placing them in a rank that suits none but Allah. This is represented in seeking their help in adversities, circumambulating their graves, seeking blessings in the dust in which they are buried, and the like.

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Invented matters/Innovatioins in religion - محدثات الأمور

All what goes against the Qur’an, the Sunnah, or the consensus of the early Muslim generations ("salaf") of beliefs and forms of worship which people have invented in the religion based on their personal desires and opinions.

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Divine inspiration - إِلْهامٌ

Inspiration that Allah casts into a person's heart to urge him to either do something or avoid it.

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Monasticism - رَهْبانِيَّةٌ

Extremism in worship, abandoning the worldly life, and refraining from mixing with people.

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Celibacy - تبتل

Abstaining from women by refraining from marriage and focusing on worship.

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Anomaly - شُذُوذُ

Parting company with the main Muslim body by opposing the scholars' consensus and what is valid and correct.

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Intent - قصد

Decisive will.

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Polytheism of supplication - شِرْكٌ في الدَّعْوَةِ

Invoking other than Allah, the Almighty, to do such things that only Allah, the Exalted, can do, like removing distress or bringing benefits.

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Passion/Excessive love - عِشْقٌ

Excessive love along with desire.

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Division - تَفَرُّق

Turning away from the truth and its people.

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The Occultation - غَيْبَةٌ

Disappearance of the Imam from people and his reappearance in the future.

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Follower/Committed one/Disciple - مريد

A person detached from his will, in admiration of his shaykh (mentor), submitting to him, detached from all other things in devotion to Allah, the Exalted, and turning to Him in totality.

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Separation - افتراق

Separating from Ahl-us-Sunnah wa al-Jamā‘ah regarding any of the unequivocal principles of religion that are authentically established by definitive text or consensus, whether they are related to beliefs or actions or to the supreme interests of the Muslim nation, such as armed rebellion against the Muslim leaders and their communities.

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Self-effacement - اِصْطِلامٌ

A state that comes upon the heart and makes one unaware of his thoughts and presence.

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The named entity - مُسَمَّى

The known specific meaning that is indicated by a name/noun.

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Make difficult - تعسير

Adopting a hard-line approach in worship and exceeding the proper limits with regards to the religious commands and prohibitions.

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Spiritual states - أَحْوالٌ

Meanings and perceptions that pass in the heart without one's intention or effort and that do not last.

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