Tribalism/Fanaticism - عَصَبِيَّةٌ

To defend those you care about whether they are right or wrong, in support of your tribe, group, color, or the like.

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Lying/Falsehood - كَذِبٌ

To report about something in a way contrary to its reality, whether deliberately or mistakenly.

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Perjury/False testimony - شَهادَة الزُّورِ

Intentionally giving a false testimony with the aim of deception.

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Disobedient person - فاسِقٌ

"Fāsiq": one who departs from obedience and uprightness. Original meaning: something exiting something else in order to corrupt it.

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Integrity/Uprightness - عَدالَةٌ

"‘Adālah": holding fast to the truth. "‘Adl": justice, anything that is considered upright. Opposite: oppression. It is originally derived from "i‘tidāl", which means moderation and straightness. Other meanings: equality, integrity, purity.

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Confession/Acknowledgment - إِقْرارٌ

"Iqrār": confession, acknowledgment. Opposite: denial. It is derived from "qarr", which means: capability, stability.

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Drinker of alcohol - شارِبُ الخَمْرِ

Tījāniyyah

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Interdiction - حَجْرٌ

"Hajr": preventing, banning. Other meanings: narrowing, limiting. As derived from this, the mind is called "hijr", because it prevents one from doing reprehensible things.

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Aggressors/Transgressors - بُغاةٌ

"Bughāh" (sing. bāghi): transgressor, oppressor. It is derived from "baghy", which means: exceeding the limits.

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Grudge/Malice - حِقْدٌ

"Heqd": retaining animosity within the heart. Original meaning: retaining, withholding. Other meanings: dislike, hatred.

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Deliberate ambiguity - تَوْرِيَةٌ

"Tawriyah": metonymy, indirect reference. Opposite: frankness. Original meaning: veiling, hiding. Other meanings: delay, extracting.

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Manhood/Magnanimity - مُرُوءَةٌ

"Murū’ah": manhood in its perfect form; good manners and politeness. It is derived from "marī’" (the gullet). It was also said to be derived from "mar’", which means: man, human being. Other meanings: humanity, chastity, generosity, nobility, uprightness.

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Judge - قاضِي

"Qādi": judge; a person who decides matters and settles them with his judgment.

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Freedom from liability/Innocence - بَراءَةٌ

"Barā’ah": discarding and being cleared from something. Original meaning: avoidance of what is disliked. Other meanings: abandonment, severance, separation.

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Swearing - حَلِفٌ

"Halif": oath. Original meaning: adherence - since one is required to adhere to his oath.

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Turning away - إِعْرَاضٌ

"I‘rād": aversion, turning away, rejection. Opposite: proceeding toward something, obedience. It is derived from "‘ard", which means: appearance and prominence, or width. Other meanings: leaving out the work, going away, refusal, neglecting.

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To let grow - إِعْفَاءٌ

"I‘fā’": increasing and growing. "‘Āfi": a person with long hair. "‘Afw": leftover and remnants of something, leaving out the punishment. It is derived from "‘afā’", which means: leaving. Other meanings: increase, elongation, release, letting go, acquittal, deliverance.

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Justice/Fairness - عَدل

"‘Adl": uprightness, just judgment. Opposite: injustice. Other meanings: moderateness.

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Respite - إِنْظارٌ

"Inzhār": to grant respite, delay, and postpone. Opposite: hastening. It is derived from "nazhar", which means to behold and see something. Other meanings: deliberation, anticipation, lying in wait.

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Compulsion/Obligation - إِلْزامٌ

Forcing someone to do something or quit doing it.

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Contract-based partnership - شَرِكَةُ العَقْدِ

A joint enterprise between two or more persons to conduct some business.

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Details request - اسْتِفْصالٌ

Requesting to know the details of something and explanation related to it

Translated into: English Urdu Indonesian

Substantiation - إِثْباتٌ

Providing evidence on the veracity of allegations before the judge in a court of law concerning a right or a certain incident.

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Limitation period - تَقادُمٌ

The lapse of a specific period of time after which the claim for a right may not be filed, or the execution of a judicial verdict is dismissed.

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Forcing/Compelling - إِجْبارٌ

A state in which a person with authority forces another to do an act to realize a Shariah ruling.

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Friendship - صَداقَةٌ

Sincere affection, love, and companionship between two or more friends.

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Disagreement/Difference - تَنازُعٌ

When two sides or more dispute, with each side claiming to be in the right.

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Date - تارِيخٌ

The time that specifies the beginning of something and its end.

Translated into: English Urdu Indonesian

Claim - دَعْوَى

A statement by which a person requests establishing his due right upon another person.

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Refusal to take an oath - نُكُولٌ

Refusing to take an oath that is required by the Shariah.

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Exposing/Defaming - تَشْهيرٌ

Exposing a person's faults by the ruler and announcing that to the people out of reprimand for that person and those like him.

Translated into: English Urdu Indonesian

"Mudārabah" - مُضَارَبَةٌ

A joint partnership between two individuals in which one offers capital while the other offers work on the condition that the profit is shared between them according to their agreement.

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Unintentional mistake - غَلَطٌ

Something contrary to what is correct without intention.

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Arbitration - تَحْكِيمٌ

The agreement of two opponents to accept the judgment of a certain person on resolving the dispute between them.

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Just - عدل

It refers to an adult and sane Muslim who shuns major sins and does not persist in minor ones, and he mostly behaves correctly and refrains from such acts that prejudice the sense of honor.

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Enmity/Hostility - عَداوَةٌ

Harboring hatred and ill-will towards a person.

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Collective oath - قَسامَةٌ

Repeated oaths sworn by the kin of a slain person to confirm the accusation of murder.

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Overburdening - إعنات

To charge with burdensome tasks beyond one's power and capability.

Translated into: English Urdu Indonesian

Precision - ضَبْطٌ

Hearing the speech in the proper manner, understanding its intended meaning, and then memorizing it and being committed to it.

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Establishing testimony - إِقامَةُ الشَّهادَةِ

Testifying the due right of someone over another person based on knowledge and certainty for the sake of Allah, without any diversion, deletion, or addition.

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Sagacity/Discernment - فِطْنَةٌ

Having accurate and deep understanding of matters.

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Legal opinion - فُتْـيا

To inform someone of a religious ruling without obliging him to apply it.

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To separate/distinguish - إِفْرازٌ

Separating and distinguishing the property of someone from that of his partner.

Translated into: English Urdu Indonesian

Confining/Restricting movement - تَرْسِيمٌ

Limiting and restricting a person's movement such that he cannot move from one place to another.

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Record/Register/Logbook - سِجِلٌّ

The register wherein the judge records judicial verdicts and relevant information.

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Impotence/Inability - تَعْجِيزٌ

It refers to admission of the slave having a contract of manumission that they are unable to pay the amount stated in the contract.

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Seeking respite - اسْتِمْهالٌ

It is to request extra time in order to fulfill a certain task.

Translated into: English Urdu Indonesian

Causing damage - إِتْلافٌ

Damaging something by totally destroying it or eliminating its usefulness by the action of an animal or something else.

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Envoys/Assistants - أَجْرِياءٌ

The judge's messengers and assistants who are assigned to bring litigants to a court of law.

Translated into: English

Secondary testimony/Testimony to testimony - شَهادَةُ الاِسْتِرْعاءِ

The original witness asks a secondary (branch) witness to remember his testimony and memorize it accurately so that he would relay it on his behalf (before a judge).

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Contradictory statement - تَناقُضٌ

It is when the plaintiff or the witness says what necessitates invalidating his former statement, whether related to the rights of Allah or to the rights of people.

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Adjournment - تَوقُّفٌ

The judge’s postponement of issuing a sentence in a court case for some reason.

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Respected old woman - بَرْزَةٌ

A chaste old woman who comes out (of her room) and sits with the men, and they discuss things in her presence.

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Expertise - خِبْرَةٌ

Having detailed knowledge of something.

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Scribe - كَاتِبٌ

A trustworthy, competent adult who is experienced in the profession of writing and is appointed as a scribe by a judge to write witness records and court adjudications.

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Mutual affirmation - تَصَادُقٌ

Each of the two litigants affirming the other's claim.

Translated into: English

Investigator of witness reliability - مُزَكِّي

A person whom the judge relies upon and refers to in order to determine the reliability of a witness.

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Refutation - مُعَارَضَةٌ

To prove the opposite of what the opponent has established by proof.

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Legal council/Court of law - مَجْلِسُ الحُكْمِ

The place where the judge sits to settle legal disputes and pass judgements.

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Face-to-face oral communication - مُشَافَهَةٌ

Oral communication between two or more people face to face.

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Tracking - قِيافَةٌ

Discerning lineage through insight and inspecting resemblances in the face and body parts.

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Filing a lawsuit/Seeking support against enemy - اِسْتِعْداءٌ

Seeking help and support from the ruler or his deputy to restore justice or remove injustice.

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Sash - وِشَاحٌ

A long piece of fabric adorned with jewels that a woman wears over the shoulder and across the waist.

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Inquiry messengers - أصحابُ المسائلِ

Those whom the judge send to inquire about the state of the witnesses and ask those who know them.

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Judge aiding a litigant - إِعْداءٌ

Fairness of the judge and his aiding a litigant against the one who wronged him.

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Judge's assistants - أَعْوانُ القاضِي

Those whom the ruler appoints to assist the judge in carrying out his duties.

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Restriction-free ownership - طَلْقُ

Something that is free of restrictions and its owner can dispose of it freely.

Translated into: English

Blindness - عَمَى

Losing the eyesight in both eyes.

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Possessor by seizure - داخل

A person who acts freely, like an owner, concerning a certain property.

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