To report about something in a way contrary to its reality, whether deliberately or mistakenly.
"Iqrār": confession, acknowledgment. Opposite: denial. It is derived from "qarr", which means: capability, stability.
"Sadāq": dowry given to the woman. It is derived from "sidq", which means: strength, durability. The dowry is also known as "farīdah", "mahr", "ajr", etc.
"Tawthīq": strengthening and establishing something. Original meaning: precision, perfection. It is derived from "wathīqah", which means something used a proof, such as letter and the like.
"Hajr": preventing, banning. Other meanings: narrowing, limiting. As derived from this, the mind is called "hijr", because it prevents one from doing reprehensible things.
"Ghasb": openly taking something unjustly and by force.
"Tawriyah": metonymy, indirect reference. Opposite: frankness. Original meaning: veiling, hiding. Other meanings: delay, extracting.
"Zūr": lying, falsehood. Original meaning: inclining, swerving, something adorned. Other meanings: accusation, strength, polytheism, singing, diversion.
"Yamīn": oath-taking, swearing. It was called as such because people used to strike the "yamīn" (right hand) of one another upon entering into alliance. Other meanings: hand, blessing, strength.
"Halif": oath. Original meaning: adherence - since one is required to adhere to his oath.
"I‘rād": aversion, turning away, rejection. Opposite: proceeding toward something, obedience. It is derived from "‘ard", which means: appearance and prominence, or width. Other meanings: leaving out the work, going away, refusal, neglecting.
A joint enterprise between two or more persons to conduct some business.
Requesting to know the details of something and explanation related to it
The lapse of a specific period of time after which the claim for a right may not be filed, or the execution of a judicial verdict is dismissed.
Providing evidence on the veracity of allegations before the judge in a court of law concerning a right or a certain incident.
When two sides or more dispute, with each side claiming to be in the right.
The time that specifies the beginning of something and its end.
A statement by which a person requests establishing his due right upon another person.
Refusing to take an oath that is required by the Shariah.
A joint partnership between two individuals in which one offers capital while the other offers work on the condition that the profit is shared between them according to their agreement.
Repeated oaths sworn by the kin of a slain person to confirm the accusation of murder.
It refers to an adult and sane Muslim who shuns major sins and does not persist in minor ones, and he mostly behaves correctly and refrains from such acts that prejudice the sense of honor.
To charge with burdensome tasks beyond one's power and capability.
Limiting and restricting a person's movement such that he cannot move from one place to another.
It refers to admission of the slave having a contract of manumission that they are unable to pay the amount stated in the contract.
It is to request extra time in order to fulfill a certain task.
Damaging something by totally destroying it or eliminating its usefulness by the action of an animal or something else.
The original witness asks a secondary (branch) witness to remember his testimony and memorize it accurately so that he would relay it on his behalf (before a judge).
It is when the plaintiff or the witness says what necessitates invalidating his former statement, whether related to the rights of Allah or to the rights of people.
The judge’s postponement of issuing a sentence in a court case for some reason.
A chaste old woman who comes out (of her room) and sits with the men, and they discuss things in her presence.
Each of the two litigants affirming the other's claim.
To prove the opposite of what the opponent has established by proof.
Discerning lineage through insight and inspecting resemblances in the face and body parts.
Seeking help and support from the ruler or his deputy to restore justice or remove injustice.
Those whom the judge send to inquire about the state of the witnesses and ask those who know them.
Fairness of the judge and his aiding a litigant against the one who wronged him.
Something that is free of restrictions and its owner can dispose of it freely.
A person who acts freely, like an owner, concerning a certain property.