Allah - اللهُ

The name of the Divine Essence that encompasses all the attributes of perfection, majesty, and beauty and Who is the only deity worthy of worship, apart from any other entity.

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The Protector - حفيظ

The One who protects and maintains what He has created, and the One whose knowledge encompasses what He has originated and decreed.

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Praising Allah - تَحْمِيدٌ

Saying: "Rabbana wa lak al-hamd" (Our Lord, and all praise is due to You) upon standing upright after rising from "rukū‘" (bowing) in prayer.

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Sanctification - تقديس

Glorifying Allah Almighty by ascribing the attributes of perfection and beauty to Him and exalting Him above all deficiencies and faults.

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Monotheism - توحيد

Singling Allah out in everything exclusive to Him: His Lordship, His divinity (worship), and His names and attributes; and dissociating oneself from polytheism and its people.

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The Rightly-Guided Caliphs - الخُلفاءُ الرّاشِدُونَ

The first four Caliphs, who successively ruled Muslims after the Prophet’s death. They are Abu Bakr as-Siddīq, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb, ‘Uthmān ibn ‘Affān, and ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib (may Allah be pleased with them).

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Glorification of Allah - تَسْبِيحٌ

Exalting Allah above all aspects of imperfection, and affirming all aspects of perfection for Him.

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Allah’s signs/miracles - آيات الله

Anything that points to and guides to Allah Almighty.

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The Qur’an - القرآن

The speech of Allah Almighty which He revealed to His Messenger Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) and His servants worship Him by reciting it. It is written in Mus-hafs and has reached us through successive transmission.

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Watchfulness of Allah - مُراقَبَةٌ

Tījāniyyah

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Distortion - تَحْرِيفٌ

"Tahrīf": alteration. Original meaning: inclination toward something. It is turning the meaning of a speech from its original meaning to something else.

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Negation - تعطيل

"Ta‘tīl": emptying, vacating. It is derived from the word "‘atal", which means emptiness, vacancy, and leaving.

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Describing manner and nature - تكييف

"Takyīf": Describing the manner, form, or condition of something, like its length, width, and size. It is derived from "kayf", which means: manner, form, and essence.

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Exaltation above defects and deficiencies - تَنْزِيهٌ

"Tanzīh": keeping away and being exalted above deficiencies. It is derived from "nazh", which means: remoteness.

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Going to extremes/Excess in exaggeration - تنطع

"Tanattu‘": going deep into something and exaggerating and bragging about it. It is derived from "nati‘", which is the palate (the top part of the inside of the mouth). Then it came to be used for all types of exaggeration in words and actions.

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Raising to heaven - الرفع إلى السماء

The ascension of ‘Isā (Jesus), peace be upon him, with his soul and body to the second heaven, as per the command of Allah, the Exalted, out of showing mercy to him and honoring him.

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The Footstool - كرسي

"Kursi": a bed, something that one leans or sits on. Other meanings: knowledge; hence, scholars are called "karāsi".

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Ascension - معراج

"Mi‘rāj": an instrument of ascending, like an elevator or a ladder, which takes one upwards. Original meaning denotes elevation and rising.

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Unity of existence - وحدة الوجود

A belief based on the claim that the existence of Allah and the existence of His creation are one and the same.

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Inability to speak or understand Arabic properly - عجمة

"‘Ujmah": inarticulateness. Original meaning denotes silence and refraining from speaking. It is derived from "a‘jami", which means: an inarticulate person who cannot speak properly or make his speech understood. If an Arab is described to have "‘ujmah", it means that he does not pronounce words properly.

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Negated attributes - صفات منفية

The attributes that Allah denied for Himself in His Book or through His Messenger, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him.

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Rival - نِدٌّ

"Nidd": counterpart, equal, rival. It refers only to someone at odds with the person he resembles. Original meaning: disunion, alienation.

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Negative Attributes - صفات سلبية

Attributes that Allah, the Almighty, negated for Himself in His Book or through His Prophet, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him; as they do not befit His majesty.

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Attributes of Allah's actions - صِفاتٌ فِعْلِيَّةٌ

Attributes which relate to the will of Allah, the Almighty, and whose instances recur according to His will.

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The Throne - العَرْشٌ

"Al-‘Arsh": king’s chair. Original meaning: highness, elevation. Other meanings: the roof of a house.

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Hope - رَجاءٌ

"Rajā": hope, aspiring to something. Opposite: despair, hopelessness.

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Supernatural act - كَرامَةٌ

"Karāmah": dignity, honor. It is derived from "karam", which means generosity, abundance. Opposite: stinginess. Other meanings: nobility, grace.

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Knowing Allah - مَعْرِفَةُ اللهِ تعالى

Tījāniyyah

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Deviation from divine signs - الإلحاد في آيات الله

Tījāniyyah

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Beseeching - تَضَرُّعٌ

"Tadarru‘": beseeching, imploring, subservience. It is derived from "dar‘", which means: leniency, weakness.

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Truth - حَقٌّ

"Al-haqq": the truth, the constant. Opposite: falsehood, error. Other meanings: what is due, necessary, certain.

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Attributes of Allah’s essence - صفات ذاتية

Tījāniyyah

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Good/Lawful - طَيِّب

"Tayyib": delicious, lawful, permissible. It is derived from "tībah", which means safety from evil. Opposite: evil, unlawful. Other meanings: appropriate, nice, easy, pure, clean.

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The Day of ‘Arafah - يَوْمُ عَرَفَة

The ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah.

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Interpretation/Allegorical interpretation - تَأوِيلٌ

Replacing the apparent meaning of the word with another different meaning.

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Changing - تَغَيُّرٌ

Something changing and transforming from one state to another.

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Love amulet/charm - تولة

A type of magic that is made to endear the woman to her husband and the man to his wife.

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Later/Succeeding generations (Innovators) - خَلَفٌ

Those who come after the first three best generations (since the start of the Islamic era) and pursue the path of the people of religious innovations and deviant whims.

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Attributes - الصفات

Allah's attributes of perfection, beauty, and glory that are established in the Qur’an and the Sunnah. They distinguish Allah, the Exalted, from other beings.

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Attribute - وصف

Self-essential meaning

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Homonym/Polysemous term - مُشْتَرَكٌ لَفظيُّ

A word that has same spelling and several meanings.

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Scholastic theology - عِلْمُ الكَلامِ

A science that defends faith-related beliefs by providing logical proofs without referring to Shariah-approved proofs.

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Attributes proven by reason - الصفات العقلية

They are the attributes of Allah Almighty that are proven by combining intellectual evidence with the sound natural disposition, in addition to Islamic texts that affirm them.

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Reason-based facts - عقليات

Anything that is approved by reason or known through human intellect.

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Blessed be Allah - تبارك الله

A phrase of glorification and exaltation of Allah, the Almighty, which means: glorified and exalted be Allah.

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Anthropomorphism - تجسيم

The description of Allah, the Almighty, as being a body.

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Laudation/Praise - ثناء

Repeating the praises of Allah the Almighty frequently and enumerating them by mentioning His attributes of beauty and praiseworthy actions.

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Polytheism of supplication - شِرْكٌ في الدَّعْوَةِ

Invoking other than Allah, the Almighty, to do such things that only Allah, the Exalted, can do, like removing distress or bringing benefits.

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Established Attributes - الصفات الثبوتية

The Attributes that Allah the Exalted established for Himself in the Qur"an or on the tongue of His Messenger, may Allah"s peace and blessings be upon him, in his Sunnah.

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Transitive attributes - صِفاتٌ إضافِيَّةٌ

A transitive attribute only fathomable when attributed to its opposite.

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Attributes proved by textual and rational proofs. - الصِفاتُ السَمْعِيَّةٌ العَقْلِيَّةٌ

Attributes of Allah, Exalted, proved by both textual (Shar`iee) and rational proofs.

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Passion/Excessive love - عِشْقٌ

Excessive love along with desire.

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Speech - كَلامٌ

Multiple words that express a comprehensible meaning.

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Eternity - أبد

Infinite time into the future.

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Origination/Creation - إبداع

Brining something into being; originating it on no previous model.

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Eternal - أبدي

What is endless and perpetual.

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Non-existents are timeless - أعْدامُ أَزَلِيَّةٌ

Something that does not exist and has no beginning.

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Purposes/Wisdoms - أَغْراضٌ

Ultimate objectives and rationales of deeds and rulings.

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Setting/Fading away - أفول

The setting and disappearance of something.

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Duration - أمد

A limited interval of time that has an ultimate end.

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Creatures - أَنامٌ

All creatures existing on the face of the earth.

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Bringing into existence - إيجاد

Making things on no previous model.

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Axioms - بدهيات

Knowledge that is primordial and does not require reasoning or speculation.

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The Qur'an/Revelation - تنزيل

Speech of Allah the Almighty, which was revealed to the Prophet, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, through Jibreel, peace be upon him.

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Perfections/Pathways - حُبُك

Beautiful creation that is made with utmost precision, perfection, and strength.

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Empty space - خلاء

The unoccupied space.

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Circular cause - دَور

The existence of something being contingent upon its own existence; either with or without a means.

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Divine speech - كلم - يحذف

Revelation that Allah, the Exalted, sent down to Mūsa (Moses) and ‘Isā (Jesus), peace be upon them.

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Vague terms - ألفاظ مجملة

Terms that could indicate both correct and incorrect meanings in such a way that its meaning cannot be perceived except after scrutinizing and inquiry.

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The impossible - مستحيل

Anything that the mind cannot conceive its existence in reality.

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Non-existent - معدوم

What is a non-entity and has no existence in reality.

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Impossible - ممتنع

Something that cannot exist in the real world and can only be imagined.

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Sophism - سَفْسَطَةٌ

Negating facts established by textual and logical proofs despite knowing them, with the intention of disguising and deception.

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Inner speech - كلام نفسي

A meaning that exists within the Divine Essence. It is neither a letter nor a sound; and it is not related to the will or power of Allah.

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The named entity - مُسَمَّى

The known specific meaning that is indicated by a name/noun.

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Utterances - مَلْفُوظٌ

What a person or the one in his/her position utters whether it is used or not used by the Arabs.

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Hyle (matter) - هَيُولَى

Matter that has no specific shape or form and that can take any shape or form.

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The one in kind - واحد بالنوع

A universal matter that is commonly shared by individuals and is subject to variation and division in such a way that if it is found in reality, then it becomes specific to that individual.

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Signification of complete accord - دلالة المطابقة

Interpretation of a term by all of its significations.

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Something - شَيْءٌ

All existing things that could be known or informed about.

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Attribute of (Allah's) Essence - صِفَةٌ نَفْسِيَّةٌ

An attribute that describes the Essence only without any other characteristic.

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Two Opposites/Contraries - ضِدّانِ

Two things that cannot exist together at the same time, but both can be non-existent at the same time.

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Absolute nihility - عَدَمٌ مَحْضٌ

Something that is not visible and has neither a reality nor existence.

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Accident - عَرَضٌ

Anything that does not have an independent existence, but exists only in another being.

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Doer - فاعِلٌ

One who can perform an action, while possessing the ability and will to do it.

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Figurative/Metaphorical speech - مَجَازٌ

Using a word to denote a meaning other than its original one if there is a relation between the two meanings and a supplementary evidence for using the alternate meaning rather than the original one.

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In agreement/Concordant - متواطئ

A word whose form and meaning are concordant

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Synonymous - مُتَرادِفٌ

What has one meaning and various names.

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Essence - ماهِيَّةٌ

It is the answer to the question "what is it?", which helps one visualize something.

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Parts - أَبْعاضٌ

Anything liable to be separated from the whole.

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Specific union - الاتِّحادُ الخاصُّ

Believing that Allah the Almighty has united with some creatures apart from others.

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Interrogative - اسْتِفْهامٌ

Asking a question to form a conception of something or to confirm it.

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Derivation - اشْتِقَاقٌ

Deriving a word or more from another word, with a correlation between them in pronunciation and meaning.

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Name - اسم

A word by which something is identified and known.

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Association - اِقْتِرانٌ

Two things sharing one meaning.

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Origination - إنشاء

Originating something after no previous model.

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Axioms - أَوَّلِيّاتٌ

Issues and premises that develop in one's mind without any reason that necessitates acknowledging them.

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Antonymy - تخالف

The divergence between nouns and names.

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Composition - تركيب

The Divine Essence being composed of the Divine Attributes.

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Synonymy - تَرادُفٌ

Having several names referring to a single entity.

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Infinite sequence - تسلسل

Infinite matters whose existence depends on the existence of other matters.

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Conceptualization - تَصَوُّرٌ

Forming an image of something in the mind and realizing its essence without any negation or affirmation.

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Anthropomorphism - تَشْبِيه

Believing that the Creator is similar to the creature in His attributes or that the creature is like the Creator.

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Body - جسم

Body or physical structure.

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Occurrence - حادث

Something becoming existent after being non-existent.

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Space - حَيِّزٌ

Space that contains and includes something.

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Real/Literal meaning - حَقِيقَةٌ

Using words for their original literal meaning.

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Hylomorphism - هيولة

Formless matter that is liable to take a form and image.

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Impossible to exist - مستحيل الوجود

Something that cannot be logically expected to happen or exist in the real world.

Translated into: English Russian