To report about something in a way contrary to its reality, whether deliberately or mistakenly.
"Fāsiq": one who departs from obedience and uprightness. Original meaning: something exiting something else in order to corrupt it.
"‘Adālah": holding fast to the truth. "‘Adl": justice, anything that is considered upright. Opposite: oppression. It is originally derived from "i‘tidāl", which means moderation and straightness. Other meanings: equality, integrity, purity.
"Tadlīs": hiding, concealing. Other meanings: deception, cheating, betrayal, decrease.
"Ittisāl": the state of being connected and linked together. Original meaning: association, gathering. Opposite: disconnection, separation.
"Murū’ah": manhood in its perfect form; good manners and politeness. It is derived from "marī’" (the gullet). It was also said to be derived from "mar’", which means: man, human being. Other meanings: humanity, chastity, generosity, nobility, uprightness.
"Mutawātir": successive. It is derived from "witr", which means: odd-numbered. Opposite: discontinued. Other meanings: succession of things one after the other without a gap between them.
"‘Adl": uprightness, just judgment. Opposite: injustice. Other meanings: moderateness.
"Isnād": lifting something. It is derived from "sanad", which means a high place. "sunūd": attaching something to another. Other meanings: strengthening, assisting, conveying, protection.
"Tābi‘i": It is derived from "tābi‘", which means someone who follows and imitates another. Other meanings: successor, obedient, masterful.
"Takhrīj": revealing, making prominent. It is derived from "khurūj", which originally means: leaving. Other meanings: interpretation, clarification.
"Hadīth": spoken speech, something new. It is derived from "hadāthah", which means modernity. Opposite: old.
A Hadith that is narrated by Al-Bukhari and Muslim, who converge on the text and the Companion-narrator.
"Matn": everything that becomes apparent. It is derived from "matānah", which means hardness. Other meanings: word, origin, stay.
It refers to an adult and sane Muslim who shuns major sins and does not persist in minor ones, and he mostly behaves correctly and refrains from such acts that prejudice the sense of honor.
Hearing the speech in the proper manner, understanding its intended meaning, and then memorizing it and being committed to it.
The report narrated by one person or more and did not reach the level of "tawātur" (multiplicity of the sources of a report).
When a Hadith scholar judges a Hadith to be authentic for fulfilling the conditions of authenticity according to his personal reasoning.
Whoever lived before and after the coming of Islam and became a Muslim but did not see the Prophet, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him.
A Hadith that has two or more successive narrators dropped form its chain of narrators.
A Hadith that is narrated by a weak narrator, opposing thereby the narration of a reliable narrator.
A Hadith that is narrated by a trustworthier narrator in contradiction to a narrator who is less trustworthy.
Any saying, deed, implicit approval, state, or attribute that is ascribed to the Prophet, may Allah"s peace and blessings be upon him.
A Hadith with different, yet equally strong, narrations, so these narrations cannot be reconciled or weighed against each other.
Narrator who did not live during the Prophet's lifetime and narrated from the young Companions.
A science that examines the rules for accepting or rejecting narrations and the methods to make accurate judgments concerning the narrators.
A science that examines the backgrounds, conditions, etc. of the Hadith narrators.
A Companion's statement or deed that evidence leads to the presumption that it originated from the Prophet, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, by way of inference.
Adjusting the fractions when the shares of inheritance are not fully divisible between the number of heirs.
Helping another person, such as a sick person for instance, by enabling him to lean on something for support.
Changing a word from its known form to another.
Holding something and handing it over.
A piece of news liable to be either true or false.
Judging that the narrators of a certain Hadith are the narrators accredited by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Groups of the Companions who share certain conditions and qualities.