To report about something in a way contrary to its reality, whether deliberately or mistakenly.
"Fāsiq": one who departs from obedience and uprightness. Original meaning: something exiting something else in order to corrupt it.
"‘Adālah": holding fast to the truth. "‘Adl": justice, anything that is considered upright. Opposite: oppression. It is originally derived from "i‘tidāl", which means moderation and straightness. Other meanings: equality, integrity, purity.
"Murū’ah": manhood in its perfect form; good manners and politeness. It is derived from "marī’" (the gullet). It was also said to be derived from "mar’", which means: man, human being. Other meanings: humanity, chastity, generosity, nobility, uprightness.
"‘Adl": uprightness, just judgment. Opposite: injustice. Other meanings: moderateness.
It refers to an adult and sane Muslim who shuns major sins and does not persist in minor ones, and he mostly behaves correctly and refrains from such acts that prejudice the sense of honor.
Whoever lived before and after the coming of Islam and became a Muslim but did not see the Prophet, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him.
Narrator who did not live during the Prophet's lifetime and narrated from the young Companions.
A science that examines the rules for accepting or rejecting narrations and the methods to make accurate judgments concerning the narrators.
A science that examines the backgrounds, conditions, etc. of the Hadith narrators.
Groups of the Companions who share certain conditions and qualities.