Guiding to belief in Allah Almighty and what was brought by His messengers, and to believing in what they said and obeying of their commands.
"Irshād": guidance, leading.
"Hisbah": reward, counting. Original meaning: calculation. Other meanings: denouncing, self-sufficiency, managing, estimating, guessing.
"Istikhlāf": appointing someone as a deputy or successor. It is derived from "khalaf", which means: replacement, substitution.
"Shūra": seeking the opinion of someone; some matter subject to discussion and mutual consultation. It originally comes from "shawr", which means: bringing something out and revealing it.
"Rifq": gentleness, leniency. Opposite: harshness, severity. Other meanings: ease, facilitation. Original meaning: benefit.
"Munkar": bad, rejected, denied. It is derived from "inkār", which means ignorance. Other meanings of "inkār": negation, denial, rejection, belying, changing.
"Bay‘ah": pledge of allegiance, going into a contract or an agreement. It is also used to refer to obedience to the ruler.
"Ihtisāb": considering something. It is derived from "hisāb", which means: counting, enumerating. Other meanings: denial.
"Shafaqah": fear from and caution about misfortune, keenness on reform. Original meaning: delicateness. Other meanings: caution, mercy, affection, and grief.
"Hilm": deliberateness, patience, quietness, self-restraint. Opposite: haste, foolishness.
"Ra’fah": extreme mercy, great mercy. Original meaning: compassion, mercy.
Adhering to the truth and following it, remaining firm upon mainstream affairs, and not rebelling against the rulers.
"‘Ajalah": speed, quickness. Opposite: delay, postponement, respite. It is derived from "i‘jāl", which means: hastening.
"Ghadr": breaking a covenant. Opposite: loyalty. Original meaning: abandonment, departure. Other meanings: offense, deceit, betrayal, cessation.
"‘Unf": violence, harshness. Opposite: gentleness, ease. It is derived from "i‘tināf", which means: dislike, hardship.
"Nasīhah": guiding to what is good and useful. It is derived from "nus’h", which means: sincerity, purity. Opposite: envy, cheating. Other meanings: truthfulness in speech.
"Huda": gently guiding and demonstrating the path to the required destination. Opposite: misguidance.
"Wa‘zh": reminding of goodness. Original meaning: intimidation, warning. Other meanings: advising, directing, admonishing.
"Wafā’": loyalty, fulfillment of covenant. Opposite: treachery. Original meaning: completeness, perfection.
"Tabyīn": revealing, clarifying. Opposite: concealment, hiding. It is derived from "bayn", which means: remoteness, separation.
"Tablīgh": telling, informing. Opposite: concealment, hiding. It is derived from "bulūgh", which means: reaching something.
"Ummah": a group, a group of people who were sent a messenger, whether or not they believed in him. Other meanings: a great scholar, law, religion.
"Mudārāh": leniency, gentleness. Original meaning: warding off. Gentleness is called "mudārāh" because one resorts to it to ward off harm.
"Tawāsi": mutual advice among people. It is derived from "wasiyyah", which means something established and affirmed. Original meaning of "wasiyyah": connecting something to another. Other meanings: plotting, prohibiting one another, being committed to one another.
He who is unable to speak standard Arabic even if he is an Arab.
The supreme leadership position in a country.
A man's close companions (his inner circle), whom he confides in and consults regarding his private and general affairs.
The procedure wherein the ruler confiscates a specific property from its owner by force and turns it into state property without compensation to the owner.
Clarifying the speech to the listener and revealing its meaning, whether with words or actions.
Any territory where laws of disbelief prevail and where the Muslims have no power or authority.
A land of disbelief whose people made a truce with Muslims with or without a compensation, depending on the public interest of the Muslims.
Use of excessive force when dealing with oneself or others.
Ruling the Muslims and being in charge of their worldly and religious affairs.
Testifying the due right of someone over another person based on knowledge and certainty for the sake of Allah, without any diversion, deletion, or addition.
Disclosing the flaws of a person to make him known for them among people.
Internal rage that a person feels because of harm inflicted on him by another and his inability to vent that feeling.
Being lenient and deliberate, while seeking to do something, and not being in haste.
Full leadership of the commoners and nobles; aims at fulfilling their interests in the matters of their religion and their worldly life.
Those who are qualified to offer the ruler or those in authority counsel and advice, like the scholars, elders, and others.
Violating others' rights or special authority without their permission.
Fighting an external enemy by using weapons.
Toughness of the heart, harshness of behavior, and alienation from people.
"Qaswah" is harshness and rigidity in the heart that drives a person towards abuse and wrongdoing rather than kindness and goodness.
Anyone who is an example to be followed in evil and mischief.
Aspiring to the highest possible form of perfection for oneself and others and rejecting imperfection and inferiority.
Allocating of a share of money by the ruler from the Muslim Treasury to some of those who deserve it.
Obligating non-Muslims to pay one-tenth of their trade money if they move it from one Muslim country to another.
Conveying that which contains clarification and explanation.
The employee appointed by the ruler or his deputy to collect due Zakah (obligatory charities) from people.
Equipping a soldier with money, weapons, and the like, and dispatching him to fight the enemy.
Asking the Imam (Muslim ruler) for alms, whether it consists of money or anything else.