"Irshād": guidance, leading.
"Hisbah": reward, counting. Original meaning: calculation. Other meanings: denouncing, self-sufficiency, managing, estimating, guessing.
"Rifq": gentleness, leniency. Opposite: harshness, severity. Other meanings: ease, facilitation. Original meaning: benefit.
"Munkar": bad, rejected, denied. It is derived from "inkār", which means ignorance. Other meanings of "inkār": negation, denial, rejection, belying, changing.
"Ihtisāb": considering something. It is derived from "hisāb", which means: counting, enumerating. Other meanings: denial.
"Shafaqah": fear from and caution about misfortune, keenness on reform. Original meaning: delicateness. Other meanings: caution, mercy, affection, and grief.
"Hilm": deliberateness, patience, quietness, self-restraint. Opposite: haste, foolishness.
"Ra’fah": extreme mercy, great mercy. Original meaning: compassion, mercy.
"‘Ajalah": speed, quickness. Opposite: delay, postponement, respite. It is derived from "i‘jāl", which means: hastening.
"‘Unf": violence, harshness. Opposite: gentleness, ease. It is derived from "i‘tināf", which means: dislike, hardship.
"Nasīhah": guiding to what is good and useful. It is derived from "nus’h", which means: sincerity, purity. Opposite: envy, cheating. Other meanings: truthfulness in speech.
"Wa‘zh": reminding of goodness. Original meaning: intimidation, warning. Other meanings: advising, directing, admonishing.
"Tabyīn": revealing, clarifying. Opposite: concealment, hiding. It is derived from "bayn", which means: remoteness, separation.
"Mudārāh": leniency, gentleness. Original meaning: warding off. Gentleness is called "mudārāh" because one resorts to it to ward off harm.
"Tawāsi": mutual advice among people. It is derived from "wasiyyah", which means something established and affirmed. Original meaning of "wasiyyah": connecting something to another. Other meanings: plotting, prohibiting one another, being committed to one another.
Testifying the due right of someone over another person based on knowledge and certainty for the sake of Allah, without any diversion, deletion, or addition.
Use of excessive force when dealing with oneself or others.
Disclosing the flaws of a person to make him known for them among people.
Internal rage that a person feels because of harm inflicted on him by another and his inability to vent that feeling.
Toughness of the heart, harshness of behavior, and alienation from people.
"Qaswah" is harshness and rigidity in the heart that drives a person towards abuse and wrongdoing rather than kindness and goodness.
Being lenient and deliberate, while seeking to do something, and not being in haste.