Sabians - صابِئَةٌ

Scholars held different opinions regarding the true identity of the Sabians. Their views include the following: 1. They were people who embraced the religion of Noah (peace be upon him). 2. They are a group of Christians who are softer than them in words. 3. They are people whose religion combined Judaism and Zoroastrianism. 4. They are between the Jews and the Christians. 5. They are people who worship the angels, pray while facing the Qiblah (direction of the Ka‘bah), recite the Psalms, and perform the five prayers. 6. They are people who used to say: “There is no deity worthy of worship but Allah”, but they had no deeds, no book, and no prophet. 7. The Sabians are two distinct sects that share only the name: a. The Harranian Sabians: they existed before the Christians, during the time of Abraham (peace be upon him). They used to worship the seven planets, believe in their influence, and claim that the orbit is a speaking living being. b. A group of the People of the Book who resemble the Christians but differ from them in many aspects of their religion. The Christians call them “Yūhānisiyyah”. Ibn Taymiyyah added a third group of people who lived before the Torah and the Bible and were monotheists. He said: “Those were the people whom Allah Almighty praised in the verse wherein He says: {Indeed, those who believed and those who were Jews or Christians or Sabians - those [among them] who believed in Allah and the Last Day and did righteousness - will have their reward with their Lord, and there will be no fear for them, nor will they grieve.} [Al-Baqarah: 62]”

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People of the Book - كِتابِيُّون

The disbelievers are of three types: 1. The People of the Book, namely the Jews and the Christians and those who agree with them with regard to the fundamentals of their religion from all their different sects, whether one of them is at war with Muslims or is an Arab or a non-Arab Dhimmi (a free non-Muslim subject living in a Muslim country). Also it makes no difference if his parents are both from the People of the Book or not, or only one of them is. 2. Those who have something resembling a divine book, such as the Magians. 3. Those who have no divine book nor anything resembling a divine book. They are every other religion except the first two mentioned categories, such as idol worshipers, hypocrites, atheists, etc. A Jew is someone who adopts the distorted religion of Judaism, which is ascribed to Moses (peace be upon him), and they are many sects, such as the Farīsiyyūn, the Sidqiyyūn, and the Samaritans. As for the Christians, they are those who adopt the distorted religion of Christianity, which is ascribed to ‘Isa (Jesus) (peace be upon him); they are many sects as well such as the Malkāniyyah, the Nastūriyyah, the Ya‘qūbiyyah, etc. Some scholars maintained it is necessary for the People of the Book to adhere to their faith and its legislations. If they deny the teachings or refuse to practice them, then they are not considered from the People of the Book, such as some modern-day Christians who are actually atheists.

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Magians/Zoroastrians - مَجُوسٌ

Magianism/Zoroastrianism is an ancient religion based on sanctifying the stars and fire. A man named Zoroaster revived it and added new teachings to it. They believe in the existence of two origins: light and darkness. They claim that goodness comes from light and evil comes from darkness.

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Ibādis - إباضية

A well-known group of Kharijites, named after its founder ‘Abdullah ibn Ibād al-Tamīmi. Among their major beliefs are the following: 1. Denying the divine attributes. Some of them totally negated the divine attributes out of fear of likening Allah Almighty to His creation, like Jahmis, while others refer all the attributes to the essence of Allah; in other words, they consider the attributes as the essence itself. 2. Denying that the believers will see Allah Almighty in the Hereafter. 3. Claiming that the Qur’an was created. 4. Denying the torment of the grave, the Scale, the Bridge, and other matters that are related to the Hereafter. 5. Denying intercession on behalf of Muslim sinners. 6. Claiming that the Muslim who commits a major sin is a denier of Allah’s favor or a hypocrite, not a disbeliever. They do not call him a polytheist. If he dies, he be in Hellfire forever. 7. Promoting “Taqiyyah” (concealment of beliefs) when dealing with Sunni Muslims who are opposed to them. 8. Rebelling with the sword against the sinner rulers.

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Ash‘arites - أشاعرة

Ash‘arites are one of the sects that ascribe themselves to Islam. They adopt the approach of the scholastic theologians in affirming their beliefs and rebutting those who oppose them. This sect is attributed to Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Ismā‘il al-Ash’ari (d. 324 AH). It emerged in the fourth Hijri century. Al-Ash‘ari started by adopting I‘tizāl (withdrawal), and he was then affected by the ideas of Ibn Kullāb regarding the speech of Allah Almighty, His voluntary actions, and fate. Later on, the beliefs of Ash‘arites developed and became more intense and more involved in the methodologies of scholastic theology, logic, and Sufism until it was recognized and considered in the eighth century as a logical, philosophical, Murji’i, and Jabri sect. Al-Ash‘ari went through three phases with regards to his beliefs: First: Adopting I’tizāl, which he learned from Abu ‘Ali al-Jubbā’i, the Shaykh of the Mu’tazilites in his time. Abu al-Hasan al-Ash‘ari followed this doctrine for forty years. Second: Dissociating himself from the ideology of I’tizāl, and following the way of ‘Abdullah ibn Sa‘īd ibn Kullāb that included establishing the attributes of Allah that agree with the intellect and negating the attributes of the actions of Allah, and this is the phase that his followers still adopt. Third: Returning back to the methodology of the righteous predecessors in general, while establishing all of Allah’s attributes without distorting or interpreting their meanings. Some of the most important beliefs within Ash‘arism are: 1. Giving precedence to the intellect over the texts from the Qur’an and Sunnah when contradict one another. 2. Rejecting Ahād Hadīths (Hadīth with less than ten narrators in any stage of its chain of narrators) when it comes to creed because it does not give certain knowledge. 3. Restricting Tawhīd (monotheism) to Tawhīd of Lordship, and negating dualism, plurality, composition, and divisibility, for this reason they interpret Ilāh (god) as the One Who is able to invent and create. 4. Not considering the actions of the limbs to be part of faith, and restricting faith to belief of the heart. 5. Considering the Qur’an as created and not Allah’s real speech, rather it is an expression of Allah’s speech. 6. Believing in lack of free will when it comes to fate and that the servant’s ability has no effect on the occurrence of actions. 7. Negating wisdom and justifications for all of Allah’s actions. 8. The first obligation for those competent for religious duties is to question or doubt, not to testify that there is no deity worthy of worship but Allah. 9. Oppression is to dispose of something that one does not own, not to put something in the wrong place, hence, it is possible to admit a disbeliever to Paradise and to admit a believer to Hellfire. 10. Affirming only seven of Allah’s attributes, while negating the voluntary attributes related to His essence, such as ascending, descending, speaking, and anger.

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Scholastic Theologians - أهل الكلام

“Scholastic Theologians” is a title widely used for many sects in the Muslim Ummah. They came up with logical methods and philosophical theories to establish and affirm beliefs and to rebut those who oppose them in these matters, turning away from the teachings of the Qur’an and Sunnah. ‘Ilm al-Kalām (scholastic theology) refers to the science based upon false intellectual evidences and invalid philosophical proofs to affirm and establish beliefs. Scholastic theologians emerged at the end of the era of the Tābi‘is (the generation after the Prophet’s Companions) in Basrah. They were called so because the first dispute in religion was related to the speech (Kalām) of Allah Almighty, as to whether it was created or not. People spoke about it and delved into the subject, hence, they were called “Ahl al-Kalām”. It was also said that they were called as such because they frequently spoke, argued, and delved into matters related to creed, such as Allah’s attributes, resurrection and other issues, without referring to the Qur’an and Sunnah. Scholastic theologians do not fall in one category or degree. They include many sects, each of which is attributed to its founder like Jahmis, followers of Al-Jahm ibn Safwān; Mu‘tazilites, followers of ‘Amr ibn ‘Ubayd and Wāsil ibn ‘Atā’; Ash‘arites, followers of Abu al-Hasan al-Ash‘ari, and others.

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Dualism - ثنوية

Dualism is a sect, from amongst the Magi and the like, which says that the world emerged from two origins, light and darkness, and that they are timeless and different in their essences and forms, and opposite in their actions and planning. Light, according to them, is the praiseworthy god of good, and darkness is the dispraised god of evil. The Dualists’ belief that there are two gods for the universe is apparently wrong and rejected by the sound natural disposition and sound reason.

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Salafism - سلفية

"Salafiyyah": It is derived from "salaf", which means predecessors, and from "aslafa", which means: to pass and elapse. The "salaf" of a person are his forefathers and relatives who preceded him in age and virtue.

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Qādyānism - قاديانية

Qādyānism is a malicious Bātini sect that has nothing to do with Islam. It emerged at the end of the 19th century in India on British plans, so as to alienate Muslims from Islam, especially from the duty of Jihad. Qādyānism is known as such in India and Pakistan, whereas in Africa and other places they are known as Ahmadism. Their beliefs include the following: 1. Denying that prophethood is sealed, and misinterpreting proofs of its sealing. 2. Claiming that Ghulām Ahmad is the Mahdi, a prophet affirming the Shariah of Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him), and the promised Messiah. 3. Claiming that revelation still comes down. Ghulām received it, and some of his followers heard it. 4. Prohibiting Jihad and calling people to obey the British rulers. 5. Considering Qādyān and its mosque as equivalent to Makkah and its Mosque. Pilgrimage to Qādyān, being the third sacred place, is like pilgrimage to Makkah. 6. Considering Muslims who do not believe in Ghulām as disbelievers. 7. Giving Ghulām and his followers precedence over all prophets and their followers. 8. Drawing resemblance between Allah and humans, Exalted is Allah above such claims. 9. Believing in reincarnation, immanentism, and other false beliefs.

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Murji’ites - مرجئة

Murji’ites are many sects that believe that sins are of no effect on faith and acts of obedience do not avail disbelief, and that actions are not part of faith. They are given this name for two reasons: 1. Making actions less important than the intention and purpose. 2. Granting sinning believers hope that Allah will pardon and forgive them. They have defined faith in many ways according to their sects: 1. Jahmis: they are the followers of Al-Jahm ibn Safwān, who claimed that faith is about awareness of the heart. Faith, according to them, is not divisible, and all people have the same level of faith. 2. Ash‘arites and Māturīdis: they say that faith is belief in the heart. A group of them, such as Al-Bāqillāni, Al-Juwayni, Al-Rāzi, and the majority of Māturīdis, say that faith neither increases nor decreases. Another group, such as Al-Īji and Al-Ghazāli, says that belief in the heart is subject to increase and decrease in terms of strength and weakness, based on clear evidence and proofs. 3. Abu Hanīfah and his companions: they said that faith is acknowledgment by the tongue and belief by the heart, and it neither increases nor decreases. Some of the Māturīdis adopted this opinion. 4. Al-Karrāmiyyah: they said that faith is acknowledgment by the tongue without affirmation of the heart. The Murji’ites share the view that actions are not included in the concept of faith. The Murji’ites, however, have two different opinions on the obligation of actions: 1. The extreme Murji’ites: they say that actions are not obligatory, claiming that salvation is guaranteed for the believer no matter what sins he commits or what obligations he neglects. They also say that sins do not harm a person as long as he has faith, exactly as obedience does not benefit a person as long as he adopts disbelief. 2. The non-extreme Murji’ites: they hold that actions are obligatory and that the sinner shall be subject to Allah’s will on the Day of Judgment, either to punish or forgive him. Such a statement narrowed the disagreement between this group and Ahl-us-Sunnah and limited it to the definition of faith only.

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Mu‘tazilites - معتزلة

The Mu‘tazilites are an Islamic sect that appeared in the beginning of the second century, towards the end of the Umayyad era, and flourished during the Abbasid era. They relied solely on the intellect in understanding the Islamic creed because of the influence that some imported philosophies had on them. This led to their deviation from the belief held by Ahl-us-Sunnah wa al-Jamā‘ah. They call themselves “People of Justice and Monotheism”, and the probable reason for calling them Mu‘tazilah was that their leader Wāsil ibn ‘Atā’ withdrew from (I‘tazala) the study circle of Al-Hasan al-Basri, after Wāsil said that a person who commits a major sin is in a position in the middle between two positions, i.e. he is neither a believer nor a disbeliever, and that he will dwell eternally in Hellfire if he does not repent before death. They are also called “Qadarism” due to their agreement with those who denied “Qadar” (divine decree) and attributed the actions of people to their own ability. Among their names are “Dualists” and “Magians”. This is because they approve the idea that good is from Allah and evil is from people. This agrees with the doctrine held by the Dualists and Magians, who hold that there exist two gods: one for good and one for evil. They were also named “Wa‘īdiyyah” (from the word “Wa‘īd”, which means threat of punishment) due to their famous principle that Allah’s promise of reward and threat of punishment is irreversible. Thus, according to them, a sinner must receive punishment inevitably, unless he repents before death. They are also named “Mu‘attilah”. This name was given to Jahmism as well, and was then used for the Mu‘tazilites. They were called as such because they agree with Jahmism in negating the attributes of Allah. They both resort to figurative interpretation when there are texts from the Qur’an and Sunnah that do not agree with their doctrine. Their five principles are: 1. Monotheism: they intend by this principle to deny the attributes of Allah Almighty, arguing that affirming such attributes necessitates the multiplicity of eternal entities which would be polytheism in their opinion, because affirming Allah’s attributes may suggest that every attribute is a god. So, the only way to escape this is to deny these attributes and ascribe them to the essence of the Creator, thus saying that Allah is Knowledgeable by His essence, Omnipotent by His Essence, etc. In that way, the meaning of monotheism is fulfilled in their sight. 2. Justice: they intend by this word to deny the divine decree, which is related to the actions of Allah Almighty. They say that Allah’s actions are always good and devoid of evil; thus, they deny that people’s evil actions are from Allah Almighty in terms of predetermination or creation, because believing otherwise entails the attribution of evil actions to Allah Almighty while He is far exalted above that. 3. Promise of reward and threat of punishment: they intend by this to affirm the idea that sinners will abide eternally in Hellfire. For them, the promise of reward means that it is incumbent upon Allah to fulfill His promise and must reward the servant for the acts of obedience which He enjoined upon him. A servant then, has a right upon Allah in return for His promise to reward him if he observes the religious assignments which Allah has chosen to impose upon His servants. On the other hand, the threat of punishment in their sight is that Allah must carry out His threat against the sinners from among the believers, if they die before repenting. They believe that Allah must do this since it is impossible for Him to fail in His promise or lie. 4. A position between two positions: they mean by this that a Muslim sinner is neither a believer nor a disbeliever, but has a third independent ruling. He lies in a position between two positions, as he abandoned faith but did not adopt disbelief. He will be punished in Hellfire for eternity. His name and the ruling on him in this life differ, so he deserves to be placed in a position between two positions (belief and disbelief). 5. Enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil: this is considered a collective duty, according to the Mu‘tazilites; if adequately carried out by some, the rest are no longer required to do it. However, there is disagreement between Ahl-us-Sunnah and the Mu‘tazilites on the following: 1. The manner of changing evil. 2. They declared it obligatory to disobey the unjust ruler. 3. They allowed carrying weapons against those who oppose them, whether they are disbelievers or sinful Muslims.

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Mahdism - مهدية

Mahdism is one of the revolutionary movements that appeared in the Arab and Islamic world at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. They are not to be confused with the Indian Mahdawiyyah. This movement was both religious and political and adopted some deviant creedal and intellectual ideas. This is because Al-Mahdi was influenced by the Shia in his claiming to be the infallible Mahdi who would fill the world with justice after it had been filled with injustice and oppression, in stressing the importance of the lineage of Al-Mahdi and the notion that he had to be a descendant of Al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali, and in adopting the idea of infallibility and the infallible Imām. He declared those who opposed him or doubted his claim of him being Al-Mahdi to be disbelievers. He called the time before him “The Period of Ignorance”. He also claimed that the different schools of thought and Sufi paths were all but small rivers that flowed into his great ocean of knowledge, in addition to other deviant beliefs.

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Existentialism - وجودية

Existentialism is an atheistic doctrine and a philosophical permissive ideology that is based on a deceptive idea represented in raising the value of man, and that he is thoughtful, free, has a will and choice, and is not in need of any guidance. He only must present himself, assert his existence, make his essence and entity with his own will, create his own deeds, determine his own qualities, and identity with his free will independently from a creator or any other values that go against his will. He must choose the moral values that regulate his life. This became the most famous doctrine firmly established within the 20th century Western literature. Existentialists, however, differed on how this doctrine is to be applied. Some stated that man confirms his existence through giving free rein to his desires while turning a deaf ear to all customs, religions, and morals. Others said that it is accomplished by facing fears and dangers and by undergoing ordeals and trials. This philosophy led to the widespread of moral chaos, sexual permissiveness, dissolution, and corruption. People disagreed on why they were called existentialists. Some stated that the reason lies in their belief that man’s existence precedes his essence. Others said it is because they regarded the existence of a being in essence as more important than him being an individual belonging to a kind that includes multiple individuals. Western thinkers believe that Søren Kierkegārd (1813-1855 AD) is the founder of this philosophy and Jean-Paul Sartre, the atheist French philosopher (b. 1905 AD), is its most famous contemporary leader.

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Yazīdism - يزيدية

Yazīdis are a deviant sect that emerged in 132 AH after the collapse of the Umayyad State. It was founded by Yazīd ibn Unaysah. Some of his false beliefs include the following: 1. Believing that Allah Almighty will send a non-Arab prophet and reveal to him a book that was written in heaven and it will be revealed to him all at once. 2. Leaving the Shariah of Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) and embracing a different law. 3. Frequenting shrines and graves. 4. Holding a different belief regarding each of the five pillars of Islam. 5. Claiming that the messenger who will be sent by Allah will be of the Sabian faith, which is not the popular one today nor is it mentioned by Allah Almighty in the Qur’an.

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Judaism - يهودية

Judaism is the religion of the Hebrews descending from Abraham (peace be upon him). They are known as the descendants from among the Children of Israel, Jacob (peace be upon him). Allah Almighty sent them Moses (peace be upon him), supported with the Torah to be their prophet. In principle, the Jews are monotheists and belong to the People of the Book. Afterwards, however, they turned towards polytheism and adopted the idea of “Tajsīm” (anthropomorphism), which led to numerous prophets being sent to them in order to bring them back to the true monotheism whenever they deviated from the true concept of the deity worthy of worship. They adopted a calf as a deity to be worshiped shortly after leaving Egypt. They called their god “Yahwah” (Jehovah). He is not an infallible god; rather, he makes mistakes, gets angry, and feels regret. He is harsh and intolerant and destroys his people. He is the god of the Children of Israel only; thus, he is an enemy to the rest of humanity. They claim that their god moves in front of a group of the Children of Israel in a pillar made of clouds; far Exalted is Allah above what they say. They also believe that the one who was sacrificed from the children of Abraham was Is-hāq (Isaac), who was the son of Sārah. The truth, however, is that it was Ismā‘il (Ishmael). There is nothing significant mentioned in their distorted religion about resurrection, the eternal abode, and receiving rewards or punishments except in brief. This is because such ideas are distant from the materialistic way of the Jews’ thinking. Hence, according to them, reward is worldly victory and support, whereas punishment is worldly loss, humiliation, and enslavement. They believe that they are Allah’s chosen people and that the souls of the Jews are part of Allah, far Exalted is Allah above what these people claim. They also believe that the difference between the status of a human and that of an animal is like the difference between Jews and non-Jews. There had been consensus among the Jews before the emergence of the reformist movement in Germany under the leadership of Moses Mendelssohn (1729 - 1786 AD) that the Jews are a purely religious sect devoid of any nationalistic characteristics; this is because the Jews had been, during all past eras, restricted to a certain race, in that a Jew must be the son of a Jewess and must be among the descendants of Isaac and Jacob, who carried the divine message to their successors. Moreover, the name was initially used to refer to a certain place only, namely the southern kingdom of Judah. Yet, its connotation broadened and included all the Jews, particularly after the assimilation of the residents of the northern kingdom of Israel following the Assyrian exodus and their disappearance from the arena of history and the continuation of the kingdom of Judah for two centuries. Thus, the word “Jew” came to be used for anyone who embraces Judaism at any time or place, regardless of their racial or geographical affiliation.

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Communism - شيوعية

Communism is a system based on the elimination of individual ownership and on people’s right to share properties, women, and the rest of resources and earnings. Karl Marx was the founder of this ideology, and those who came after him applied it. It is based on atheism and it views the universe and life from a purely material perspective. Communists seek to fulfill their objectives by force and by all possible means. Their beliefs include the following: 1. Denying the existence of Allah Almighty and all the unseen and believing that matter is the basis of everything. Their slogan is: We believe in three: Marx, Lenin, and Stalin; and we disbelieve in three: Allah, religion, and individual ownership. 2. Fighting against the religions and considering them a means of deceiving people and serving capitalism. They exclude Judaism, however, for the Jews are an oppressed people who need their religion to get back their usurped rights, as they claim. 3. Fighting against individual ownership and calling to joint ownership of properties and to the elimination of inheritance. 4. Believing that there is no Hereafter, and no rewards or punishments except in this worldly life.

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The Saved Sect - الفِرْقَةُ النَّاجِيَةُ

The saved sect includes everyone adopting the sound creed that was held by the honorable Companions and those who follow them with righteousness until the Day of Judgment, represented in belief in Allah, His messengers, His angels, His books, the Last Day, the divine decree, both the good and bad thereof, in addition to other beliefs and obligations, while abandoning religious innovations and misguidance and their advocates.

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Philosophers - فَلاسِفَةٌ

Philosophy is based on sanctifying and giving precedence to the mind over any other source. In ancient times, it was used to denote the study of the primary principles and the explanation of knowledge using the intellect, and its purpose was to find the truth. It underwent several stages and was split up into four main categories: 1. Math and engineering. 2. Logic: it is the study of definitions and evidence and their conditions. 3. Theology: it is the study of the essence of God and His attributes. 4. Natural science: it is the study of bodies and their characteristics. Philosophers are a group of people who diverted from the truth and abandoned the religion of the prophets, and replaced revelation with their intellects. They took their knowledge from the pagan and atheistic Greeks, who are of three types: Dahris, naturalists, and theologians. Philosophy is divided into three categories: 1. Physical philosophy: it is related to the senses and its subject is the natural world. 2. Theoretical and intellectual philosophy: it relies upon logical proofs and deductions, and its followers are known as “Mashshā’iyyah” (the Walkers), since its founder Aristotle used to teach his students as he walked. 3. Inspirational philosophy: it is acquired by intuition and inspiration and what the souls know. It is concerned with god-related topics. The most famous Greek philosophers are: Plato and Aristotle, and the most famous Muslim philosophers are Al-Kindi, Al-Fārābi, and Ibn Sīna (Avicenna). The following are some of the deviant beliefs of philosophers: 1. Claiming that the world is eternal. 2. Denying the knowledge of God and the books of prophets. 3. Denying the Last Day, Paradise, and Hellfire. 4. Believing that the angels are the intellects. 5. Claiming that a philosopher is higher in rank than a prophet.

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The Twelvers - اثنا عشرية

The Twelvers is a Shia sect that is named as such because they believe in the Imāmate of twelve men from the Prophet’s family. The first Imām is ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib (may Allah be pleased with him) and the last is Muhammad ibn al-Hassan al-‘Askari, who allegedly went into occultation. The Twelvers claim that he entered an underground chamber in Samarra in Iraq, in the middle of the third Hijri century, and that he has remained alive there until today. So they await his emergence. The Twelvers are also known as the Rāfidis, Ja‘faris, and Imāmis. They branch out into multiple sub-sects including Shaykhis, Kashfis, and Bābis. The Twelver Rāfidis have beliefs and principles that contradict Islam, such as: 1. Believing that the Qur’an is distorted. 2. Considering the Prophet’s Companions as disbelievers, insulting and hating them all except a few. They also disown the first three Caliphs: Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthmān (may Allah be pleased with them), and describe them with the most detestable attributes because, as they claim, they seized the caliphate from ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) while he was the most entitled to it. 3. Believing that the twelve Imāms are infallible and immune to mistakes, forgetfulness, and sins; and they know the unseen. 4. Venerating graves and tombs and supplicating the deceased. 5. Believing in Taqiyyah, considering it a fundamental of the religion, and whoever abandons it is like the one who abandons prayer. 6. Believing that temporary marriage is the best of customs and pious acts that bring them closer to Allah.

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Ismā‘ilites - إسماعيلية

Ismailites are those who assert the Imāmate of Ismā’il ibn Ja‘far al-Sādiq. It is also said to be attributed to Muhammad ibn Ismā’il ibn Ja‘far al-Sādiq. It is a sect which is outwardly loyal to the Prophet’s household, but in reality they destroy the Islamic beliefs, nullify its laws, and vilify the religion. Its sub-sects split and continued to exist over the years until our present time. They went so far in their extremism to the extent that the Twelvers consider its members disbelievers. Ismā’ilites consists of two sects: 1. A sect that awaits the return of Ismā’il ibn Ja‘far despite historical consensus that Ismā’il died during his father’s lifetime. 2. A sect that asserts that the Imām who is to succeed Ja‘far was his grandson Muhammad ibn Ismā’il ibn Ja‘far, since Ja‘far appointed his son Ismā’il as the Imām after him. So when Ismā’il died during the lifetime of his father, it is known that he indeed appointed his son. Ismā‘ilites was split into many divisions like the Aghākhāniyyah in Iran and the Buhrah in India and Yemen. Some of their beliefs are: 1. Infallibility, according to them, does not mean refraining from making mistakes or committing sins; rather, they interpret sins in accordance with their own beliefs. 2. Whoever dies without knowing the Imam of his time and without pledging allegiance to him dies in a state of ignorance. 3. Extremism concerning the Imām, deifying him, believing in his divine knowledge, and paying him one fifth of what they gain. 4. Believing in Taqiyyah and secrecy, and applying them at hard times. 5. Believing in reincarnation. The Imām, according to them, is the heir of all prophets and all Imāms before him. 6. Denying the attributes of Allah, because in their opinion, Allah is far above the comprehension of human mind. He is neither existent nor non-existent, neither knowledgeable nor ignorant, and neither capable nor incapable.

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Imāmis - إمامية

The Imāmis, also known as the Twelver Shia Imāmate, outspokenly claim that ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) was the rightful leader and that he was worthier of the caliphate than Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthmān (may Allah be pleased with them). They were named the Imāmate because they were mainly concerned with the issue of Imāmate. Their title “Twelvers” is derived from their belief that twelve Imāms were infallible, free from errors, forgetfulness, and from committing minor and major sins. According to them, the last of these twelve is Al-Hasan al-‘Askari, who entered into a cave in Samarra. This group claims to love the Prophet’s family. Other beliefs that they adopt include: 1. ‘Ilm al-Ladunni (divinely-inspired knowledge): They claim that everyone of their Imams received knowledge from the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him), which completes the Shariah, and that there is no difference between this Imām and the Prophet except that the Imām does not receive revelation. They say that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) entrusted those Imāms with certain secrets of the Shariah so that they would be able to teach the people what fits their times. 2. Al-Ghaybah (the Occultation): They claim that there can be no time period in which Allah does not have a proof living on this earth, and that this is proved logically and textually. The current proof is their twelfth Imām, who went into a cave and disappeared there as they claim. He has a minor and a major disappearance, which is an absolute myth. As a result, Khomeini brought the idea of Wilāyat al-Faqīh (the deputy of the awaited Imām), who will act on behalf of him as his deputy. 3. Al-Raj‘ah (the Return): They believe that Al-Hasan al-‘Askari will return at the end of time, when Allah permits him to return. When he returns, he will fill the earth with justice, after it has been filled with injustice and oppression. 4. Al-Taqiyyah (precautionary dissimulation): They believe that it is a main pillar of the religion and whoever abandons it is like abandoning of prayer. It is an obligation until the awaited Imām returns. A person who abandons it before he returns has left Allah’s religion and the religion of the Twelvers. 5. They believe in a bound copy of the Qur’an called the Mus-haf of Fātimah. 6. Al-Barā’ah (disassociation): They dissociate themselves from the three Caliphs: Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthmān (may Allah be pleased with them). They describe them with the worst of attributes and curse many of the Prophet’s Companions. Moreover, they do not leave an opportunity without speaking ill of the Mother of the Believers ‘Ā’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her).

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Bahā’ism - بهائية

Bahā’ism is one of the malicious Bātini sects that are an offshoot of the Bābi sect by Mirza Husayn ‘Ali (1233 - 1309 AH, 1817 - 1892 AD) when he pronounced that he was the one intended by Allah to appear to the people, as mentioned in the books of Bāb. He claimed the Bāb gave good news of his coming. The Bāb in Bahā’ism is the link between them and the twelfth Imām, Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-‘Askari. Then he claimed that he was the awaited Mahdi. Then he claimed to be a prophet, and then he claimed to be a god, alleging that Allah incarnated in him - Allah is far exalted above this. Their beliefs include: incarnation, pantheism, reincarnation, the eternity of creatures, and that rewards and punishments only befall the souls in a way similar to imagination. They also deny the prophets’ miracles, the angels and jinn, as well as Paradise and Hellfire.

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Tijānism - تيجانية

Tijānism is a Sufi order that was founded by Abu al-‘Abbās Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Mukhtār al-Tījāni (1150-1230 AH). He was born in ‘Ayn Mādi Village in the Algerian desert. His name is derived from a Berber village called Bani Tajīn in Morocco. The followers of this order embrace the overall polytheistic Sufi ideas and beliefs, adding to that the belief that a person may meet the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) in a physical and real sense in this world and that the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) has given them a special prayer called “Al-Fātih Lima Ughliq” (the opener of what is closed). The form of this prayer is: “Allāhumma salli ‘ala sayyidina Muhammad al-fātih lima ughliqa wa al-khātim lima sabaqa, nāsir al-haqq bil-haqq, al-hādi ila sirātika al-mustaqīm, wa ‘ala ālih haqqa qadrih wa miqdārih al-‘azhīm (O Allah, send your peace and blessings upon our master Muhammad, who opens whatever is closed, seals whatever has passed, the one who supports the truth with the truth, who guides to your straight path, and upon his household in a way that befits his high and great status)”. This prayer enjoys a very great status amongst them to the extent that they preferred it way better than reciting the Qur’an. Al-Tījāni also claimed to be the seal of all the pious and close servants of Allah and that he is the greatest savior of the people, during his life and after his death. By claiming this, he made himself a deity to be worshiped apart from Allah Almighty. His another claim is that the souls of all pious and close servants of Allah from Adam to the time of his appearance cannot receive any divine guidance or knowledge except through him. He also claimed that he and his companions and followers will be the first to enter Paradise; that Allah made him an intercessor for all those who lived during his time; and that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) gave him Dhikr called “Salāt al-Fātih”, which is allegedly sixty thousands times better than any other Dhikr including the Noble Qur’an. The list of false beliefs goes on including the belief in the oneness of existence. This order spread far and wide, specifically in Africa.

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Buddhism - بوذية

Buddhism is a religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama, also known as Buddha (480 - 560 BC). Buddha means the knowledgeable person. He is also called Shakyamuni, i.e. the one in seclusion and retirement. Buddhists believe that Buddha is the son of God and the savior of humanity from its sufferings and pains, and that he will take all their sins upon himself. Buddhism is a man-made philosophy that has taken the form of a religion, which first appeared in India in the fifth century BC after Brahmanic Hinduism. In the beginning, it opposed Hinduism and focused on human beings, and it called upon people to lead a life of asceticism and austerity that is free from luxuries, and it ordered them to show love and tolerance and do good. After the death of its founder, however, it transformed into false beliefs with a pagan nature. Its followers went to extremes in extolling its founder until they deified him. Old Buddhism differs from modern Buddhism as the former had a moral character while the latter is a mix of Buddha’s teachings and other philosophical opinions and logical deductions about the universe and life. Buddhists are divided into two groups: 1. Devout Buddhists, who abide by all the teachings and instructions of Buddha. 2. Civil Buddhists, who abide by only some of his teachings and instructions. Buddhism retained some of its initial forms in South Asia, especially in Ceylon and Burma. In the north, especially in China and Japan, it grew more complicated and split into two traditions: 1. Mahayana (tradition of the North), which calls to deifying Buddha, worshiping him, and following closely in his footsteps. 2. Hinayana (tradition of the South), which preserved the teachings of Buddha. The followers of this tradition regard Buddha as the great teacher of ethics who reached the ultimate level of spiritual clarity.

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Compulsionism/Jabrism - جبرية

Jabrism is a sect that has gone to the extreme in affirming divine decree to the extent of denying the existence of human ability and free will. Their beliefs include: 1. Stating that man acts under compulsion and has no choice. 2. Citing divine decree as a justification for committing sins, falsely arguing that Allah willed everything that exists in the universe. Jabrism has two categories: 1. Pure Jabris (extremists): they negate man’s actions and ability to act in the first place, such as the Jahmis and the like. 2. Moderate Jabris: they affirm man’s ability, which they believe to be of no effect; so they attribute the action to man in terms of acquisition and implementation only; like the Ash‘arites, who believe that man possesses ability and will, but their acts do not occur by them. Jabrism is clearly false for people have a free will to engage in acts, which Allah Almighty created; and they are the actual doers. Allah Almighty created will and power in people, thus, their acts are also a creation of Allah Almighty.

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Ja‘farism - جعفرية

Ja‘farism is a sect from the Rāfidite Shia who are also called the Twelvers and Imāmiyyah. They ascribe themselves to Ja‘far al-Sādiq, who is their sixth Imām, as they claim. Their beliefs include the following: 1. Believing that the Qur’an is distorted. 2. Considering the Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) to be disbelievers, cursing and hating them except for a few. 3. Believing that their twelve Imāms are infallible and immune to mistakes and forgetfulness, let alone sins; and also believing that they know the unseen. 4. Venerating the graves and tombs and supplicating the dead. 5. Believing in Taqiyyah - in addition to other misguided and false beliefs.

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Jainism - جينية

Jainism is one of the major Indian religions that split from Hinduism and it is also called “Jain Dharma” and the “non-absolutism” doctrine. It was established as a revolution against Hinduism, and was built upon the fear of repeated births by way of transmigration. It appeared in the 6th century BC in India and was founded by Mahavira (i.e. the great hero), who was called Jain the 24th. He was born in 599 BC to a family of the royal Kshatriya empowered to care for and serve the political leaders. He began his period of asceticism, seclusion, and contemplation from his youth, walking through the land naked for a year, after which he began his call to this religion. Some of the beliefs and ideas of Jainism are: 1. Denying the Creator and deifying Mahavira and making him their god; associating him with the twenty-three Jains, while acknowledging the three Hindu gods Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. 2. Believing in transmigration and in karma, which they believe to be a tangible being that mixes with the soul and surrounds it; a person continues to transmigrate so long as karma is attached to his soul, and he does not become pure until he rids himself of karma. 3. Salvation, which means winning eternal happiness that is free from sadness and pain, and the way to reach salvation is by devotion to good and avoidance of evil, and for them this includes sound beliefs, sound knowledge, avoiding women, etc. 4. Believing in conquering and ridding oneself of inner passions, adopting nakedness, calling to freedom from all the shackles of life, and gradual suicide through self-starvation. 5. The speeches, directives, and responses of Mahavira are the holy doctrine of Jainism, and they are collected in forty-six books, recorded in Sanskrit; the most important of his books is The Twelve Angas. Jainism is divided into two large sects: 1. Digambara (sky-clad): They take the sky as clothing for themselves, inclining to extreme asceticism. 2. Svetambara (white-clad): They are the general class of moderate Jainis, who apply the general principles of Jainism to themselves.

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Jahmis - جَهْمِيَّةٌ

Jahmis is a misguided sect in terms of creed that attributes itself to Islam. It emerged in Iraq in the second Hijri century and was founded by Al-Jahm ibn Safwān al-Tirmidhi. His ideas were based on theological innovations, misguided ideas, and views that opposed the beliefs of the Companions. This set of beliefs started spreading from Iraq, then it spread to Khurasān, then it spread amongst the rest of Muslims and found itself advocates to defend it and write about it. Scholars have categorized Jahmis into three levels: 1. Extreme Jahmis: they are the ones who deny Allah’s names and attributes, and it is the meaning indicated when the word Jahmism is used alone. 2. Mu‘tazilite Jahmis: they deny all of Allah’s attributes. 3. Those who affirm some of the attributes and deny others, like the Ash‘arites and Māturidis. From the beliefs of extreme Jahmis: 1. Denying all of Allah’s names and attributes. 2. Excluding actions of the limbs and statements of the tongue from the concept of Imān (faith), and considering faith to be knowledge only. 3. Denying many of the matters related to the Hereafter, such as the Sirāt (Bridge), the Scale, and seeing Allah Almighty. 4. Claiming that the Qur’an is created. 5. Claiming that Paradise and Hellfire are not eternal. 6. Believing that people have no free will and choice in their actions; rather they are forced to do what they do.

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Harūris - حَرُورِيَّةُ

Harūris is a group of Kharijites who opposed ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib (may Allah be pleased with him). They rebelled against him and called him a disbeliever when he agreed to arbitration between him and Mu‘āwiyah ibn Abu Sufyān (may Allah be pleased with him). They are named after a place known as Harūrā’, close to Kufa, where they first gathered and made arbitration when they opposed ‘Ali after his return from Siffīn. They are also called “Ahl al-Nahrawān” because ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) fought them there. They are also called “Al-Muhakkimah” because they adopted the slogan “No ‘Hukm’ (arbitration) except that of Allah”. Moreover, they are called “Al-Nawāsib” because they opposed ‘Ali and his supporters and dissociated themselves from many of the eminent Companions who fought in Badr and others. Finally, they are also called “Al-Wa‘īdiyyah” because they claim that whoever commits a major sin will dwell in Hellfire forever; hence, they consider his blood and property lawful for them. Then, this name came to generally apply to all those who follow their corrupt doctrine.

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Kharijites - خوارج

The Kharijites are one of the deviant sects that emerged during the Caliphate of ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib (may Allah be pleased with him) in 37 AH after the Battle of Siffīn and after ‘Ali’s consent to refer the dispute to two arbitrators. They were resentful of what he did and considered him a disbeliever, saying that they would accept no judgment but that of Allah. The Kharijites were divided into many sects; however, their most prominent and common deviant creedal opinions are the following: 1. Considering ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib, ‘Uthmān ibn ‘Affān, and the two arbitrators (may Allah be pleased with them) as disbelievers. 2. Believing that it is obligatory to rebel against the immoral or oppressive Muslim rulers. 3. Considering a perpetrator of a major sin as a disbeliever, who will dwell eternally in Hellfire.

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Hanifism - حنيفية

Hanifism is the religion of Ibrāhim (Abraham) (peace be upon him) that Allah instilled in human nature, commanded all people to follow, and approved it for them. Allah Almighty says: {So direct your face toward the religion, inclining to truth. [Adhere to] the fitrah of Allah upon which He has created [all] people. No change should there be in the creation of Allah. That is the correct religion, but most of the people do not know} [Al-Rūm: 30]. It is the Muhammadi creed, which is the only creed accepted by Allah. It is the essence of Islam that Allah sent all the messengers to preach. It includes belief in the Oneness of Allah and belief in His angels, His books, His messengers, the Last Day, fate, with the good and bad thereof, and not worshiping idols. “Hanīf” is the upright person who adheres to Islam, the one who turns towards Allah and stays away from everything other than Him. Those who do not adhere to Hanifism are the disbelievers, including the People of the Book.

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Hashwism - حشوية

The word “Hashwiyyah” has no specific meaning in Shariah, Arabic, or common usage. Rather, it is a term used by the misguided sects to malign Ahl-us-Sunnah wa al-Jamā‘ah. They intend by this word that they are the lowest and worst of people, and their religious opinions are worthless because they are misguided, as they claim. Hence, they scare the people away from them. Mu‘tazilites call whoever believes in divine decree a Hashwi. Jahmis call those who believe in Allah’s attributes Hashwis. It is said that Mu‘atillah (Deniers) mean by this word “Hashwiyyah” that those who establish these things for Allah are worthless; and the ignorant among the Mu‘atillah think that the meaning of “Hashw” is “stuffing” the Almighty Lord with the worlds by saying that Allah Almighty is in Heaven and above His creation.

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Rāfidis/Rāfidites (Rejectors) - رافضة

Rāfidah (Rāfidis) is one of the Shia sects. They are also called the “Imāmiyyah”, the “Twelvers”, and the “Ja‘fariyyah”. They were given the name Rāfidah (rejecters) when Zayd ibn ‘Ali invoked Allah’s mercy upon Abu Bakr and ‘Umar when being asked about them. Some people rejected his attitude. Thereupon, he said to them: “Rafadtumūni! (You rejected me)”. Thus, they were called the Rāfidah. The first one to call to the beliefs of the Rāfidis was a Jewish man from Yemen whose name was ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’. They first emerged in Iraq, and then spread throughout the area, especially in Iran, where they settled in big numbers. They passed through several stages, beginning with the call of ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’ for the extreme exaltation of ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib (may Allah be pleased with him). This was followed by their beliefs which emerged after the murder of ‘Uthmān (may Allah be pleased with him); and then finally they branched into multiple sects. Their belief involves heresy, atheism, and paganism. Some of their prominent beliefs include the following: 1. Believing that the Qur’an is distorted. 2. Considering the Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) to be disbelievers and insulting and hating them, except for a few. 3. Believing that their Imāms are infallible and not prone to error and forgetfulness, let alone sins and misdeeds, and have knowledge of the unseen. 4. Venerating graves and tombs and supplicating the dead. 5. Adopting the principle of Taqiyyah, which means resorting to lying and hypocrisy in dealing with Sunni Muslims.

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Samaritans - سامرة

The Samaritans are a Jewish religious sect that only affirms the first five books of the Torah, as well as the book of Joshua and Judges. Their version of the Torah is different from that of the Jews. They are those who remained living in the place called Shakīm, and they say that Jerusalem is Nablus. They do not consider Jerusalem to be sacred nor do they respect it or honor it. Their direction of prayer is Mount Gerizim between Jerusalem and Nablus. They consider all the prophets after Mūsa (Moses) and Joshua to be false. Their origin goes back to the separation of the kingdom of Soloman (peace be upon him) into two kingdoms, the northern kingdom whose capital was Sāmirah, and the southern one whose capital was Urushalīm (Jerusalem). They call themselves Shumarīm, which means guardians of the religion. The traditional Jewish resources consider them as a group of people who do not belong to the true and pure Jewish blood and lineage.

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Zaydis - زيدية

Zaydis is a Shia sect named after Zayd ibn ‘Ali Zayn al-‘Ābidīn, who deemed the leadership of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthmān (may Allah be pleased with them) legitimate. None of them declared any of the Companions to be a disbeliever. Their beliefs include the following: 1. Believing in the permissibility of the Imāmate of a good person in spite of the existence of another one who is better than him; not believing in the infallibility of their Imāms or in their trusteeship from the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him); not believing in the return of a past historical figure after his physical death to life; and not believing in the occulted Imām. 2. Stating that a believer who commits a major sin shall reside in Hellfire forever. 3. Believing it is permissible to rebel against oppressive rulers. 4. Holding that one should not pray behind a dissolute Muslim. 5. Inclining to the view of Mu‘tazilites with regard to the essence of Allah Almighty and free will in deeds. 6. Opposing the Shītes with regard to temporary marriage, which they denounce. 7. Agreeing with the Shītes regarding the Khums (one-fifth in Zakah) and the permissibility of practicing Taqiyyah (precautionary dissimulation) when necessary. Zaydis later divided into three sects: 1. Jārūdiyyah: the followers of Abu al-Jārūd Ziyād ibn al-Mundhir al-‘Abdi (d. 150 AH). They declare the Companions to be disbelievers because they did not pledge allegiance to ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him). They also maintain that the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) stated that ‘Ali should be his successor by mentioning his description, not his name. 2. Sulaymāniyyah: the followers of Sulaymān ibn Jarīr al-Zaydi. They are also called “Jarīriyyah”. They believe that the Imām should be chosen through consultation, which is valid if carried out by two good Muslim men, and that it is valid to choose the less excellent person, though choosing the more excellent one is better in all cases. They acknowledge the leadership of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, but accuse ‘Uthmān (may Allah be pleased with him) of disbelief because of the events which he was blamed for. They also accused ‘Ā’ishah, Al-Zubayr, and Talhah (may Allah be pleased with them) of disbelief because they proceeded to fight against ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him). They criticized the Rāfidis for believing in Badā’ (alteration of divine will) and Taqiyyah. 3. Batriyyah: the followers of Kathīr al-Nawwā’, known as Al-Abtar, (d. circa 169 AH). They share the same doctrine with Sulaymāniyyah regarding the Imāmate. However, they do not accuse ‘Uthmān (may Allah be pleased with him) of disbelief because of the contradiction of the texts that state his virtues with the events attributed to him. They also do not accuse his killers of disbelief.

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Sulaymānis - سليمانية

Sulaymānis, also known as Jarīriyyah, are followers of Sulaymān ibn Jarīr al-Zaydi, who appeared during the time of Abu Ja‘far al-Mansūr. He held that Imāmate is determined through consultation, and that whenever two prominent Imāms decide to appoint someone who is competent for it, then he becomes an Imām in reality. He acknowledged the leadership of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with both of them). Moreover, he deemed it valid to assign the Imāmate to a less qualified person in the presence of a more qualified one. He said that the Companions did not appoint the more qualified leader, who was ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him), as he was worthier of it. However, they deemed ‘Uthmān (may Allah be pleased with him) a disbeliever on account of the events that were attributed to him. They also deemed ‘Ā’ishah, Talhah, and Al-Zubayr (may Allah be pleased with them) disbelievers due to their fight against ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him).

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Shikhs - سيخ

Sikhs are the adherents of Sikhism, which originated from Hinduism and Brahmanism. The word “Sīkh” literally means a ‘disciple’ or a ‘follower’, as Sikhs are the followers of ten gurus, or spiritual teachers, who were an Indian religious community that appeared at the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th century. Founded by Nanak, the first Guru or teacher, who was born in 1469 AD in Rī Būy Dī Talfandi Village 40 miles away from Lahore, Sikhism emerged as a new religion which allegedly combines some teachings of Islam and Hinduism under the slogan: “Neither Hindus nor Muslims”. They call to faith in one creator and prohibit the worship of idols. They also call to equality between people. They permit drinking alcohols and eating pork and prohibit the consumption of cow meat, keeping in line with Hinduism. They have a holy city where they hold their important meetings, Amritsar, which is located in the Indian state of Punjab.

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Zionism - صهيونية

Zionism is a racist Jewish movement and political organization which embraces the Jewish creed and draws its ideology and beliefs from the holy scriptures that have been distorted by the Jews. The organization’s goal is to gather all the Jews in Palestine and implement their plans drawn up to restore the glory of the Children of Israel, build the Temple of Solomon (peace be upon him), establish the Kingdom of Israel, and then control the world. Zionism formulated its ideas in the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, which are resolutions that the Jews agreed upon at the Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland, 1897. Some of the Zionist ideas and beliefs include: 1. Believing that all of the Jews in the world share the same nationality, the Israeli nationality. 2. Aiming at establishing their state and controlling the whole world. 3. Believing that the Jewish God is called Yahweh. 4. Denying resurrection, recompense, Paradise, and Hellfire. 5. Believing that the Jews are the superior race that should prevail, and all other peoples should be their servants.

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Secularism - عِلْمانِيَّةُ

Secularism is an intellectual system that aims to divert people from paying attention to the Hereafter and urges them to be only concerned with worldly life in all its aspects: political, economic, social, and intellectual. It emerged in Europe in the 17th century. The most important reason that led to the emergence of Secularism in Europe was the tyrannical attitude of the church, whether at the religious level where they distorted the true religion, made impermissible what Allah made permissible, and made permissible what Allah made impermissible, or at the financial level where they prevented people from acquiring wealth and properties and imposed taxes on them, as mentioned in the distorted gospels. Secularism is based upon three foundations: 1. Restricting people’s concern to this world only, while obstructing the position of religion in life, so it just becomes a personal practice. As for the Hereafter, it is seen as a metaphysical matter, so it should be kept away from affecting the materialistic world and its tangible laws. 2. Separating knowledge, morals, and thought from adherence to religious teachings. 3. Establishing a state with political institutions based on foundations other than religion. Secular beliefs include the following: 1. Separating religion from politics and life. 2. Spreading licentiousness and moral chaos, destroying the foundation of the family, and advocating women’s liberation, which aims at making them give up Shariah rules and driving them towards that. 3. Claiming that Islam does not suit civilization and promotes backwardness. 4. Some of them deny the existence of Allah in the first place. Secularism is a misleading and deceptive term. It indicates to the victory of knowledge over the church, which fought development in the name of religion. The West contrived it to divert people from the Hereafter. It has nothing to do with knowledge. Secularism and Christianity share the principle of separating religion from the state, as the ruler has authority over the state and God has authority over the church. In Islam, on the contrary, there is no conflict or contradiction between religion and knowledge. Indeed, Islam calls for and urges the pursuit of useful and fruitful knowledge. Moreover, Islam is suitable for application in every age, society, and place. There is no agreement over the definition of Secularism, whether from the theoretical aspect or the practical reality. Hence, it was defined as the model opposed to the theocratic state applied by the church during the Middle Ages. Some used the term “Secularism” in the sense of separating religion or the church from the state. Others said that it is the rejection of any religious legislative or executive authority that meddles in the lives of individuals. Some others went to extremes and used it to mean anything opposed to religion and religiosity, and this is called “Radical Secularism”. Western countries differ in the application of this term, for instance Secularism in France is not like Secularism in Britain or the US.

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Qarmatians - قَرَامِطَة

The founder of this movement, Hamdān ibn al-Ash‘ath, is called “Qarmat” given his short height and legs. He was originally from Khuzistan, Ahvāz, and then he moved to Kūfa. This movement adopted secret military organization. Outwardly, they showed affiliation to the Prophet’s household and attribution to Muhammad ibn Ismā‘il ibn Ja‘far al-Sādiq; yet, they inwardly harbored atheism, lewdness, and a desire to ruin morals and destroy the Muslim state. Qarmatianism also means the distortion of texts and altering them through misinterpretations and false meanings, whether by distorting the words, the meanings, or both. This was called “Qarmatah” in attribution to the Qarmatian Bātini sect, followers of Hamdān ibn Qarmat, who interpret the well-known texts in a corrupt and false manner. For example, they alter the meaning of prayer and interpret it as the knowledge of their secrets, they interpret fasting as the concealment of their secrets, Hajj as the visit to their Shaykhs, etc. In this way, they are similar to heretic innovators concerning Allah’s names and attributes, like the scholastic theologians, for they misinterpreted the texts on His attributes and took them away from their right meanings and ascribed to them false meanings, which they invented.

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Māturidism - ماتريدية

Māturidism is a deviant sect in terms of creed. It adopts the methodology of scholastic theologians in establishing the creed and refuting their opponents’ opinions. This sect emerged in the fourth Hijri century and was named after a man called Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Māturīdi al-Samarqandi (d. 333 AH). Māturidism went through four stages: 1. Foundation stage: it was characterized by intensive debates with Mu‘tazilites. 2. Formation stage: it was the stage of the students of Abu Mansūr al-Māturīdi. 3. Compilation and consolidation stage: it was characterized by the production of many books and the collection of proofs to support the Māturidi beliefs. 4. Expansion and spread stage: it was the stage when the sect spread throughout the lands of the Turks, Afghans, Indians, and others. Some of the Māturidi beliefs include the following: 1. Giving precedence to human intellect over the Qur’an and Sunnah. 2. Affirming only eight attributes to Allah Almighty, namely: life, omnipotence, knowledge, will, hearing, seeing, speech, and creation. 3. Claiming that faith is belief within the heart only, and it neither increases nor decreases. 4. Restricting Tawhīd (monotheism) to believing in the Oneness of Allah’s Lordship, and thus they interpreted the word “Ilāh” as the one capable of creation. 5. Not recognizing the Ahād Hadīths in matters related to creed.

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Freemasonry - ماسونية

Freemasonry is a secret worldwide organization founded by a man named Herod Agrippa (d. 44 AD). He was the king of the Romans, and he founded that organization with the aid of two Jewish consultants. The movement used to be called “The Secret Power”. After some centuries, it was called “Freemasonry”, and it used the syndicate of the free builders as a slogan to cover its activities. Then this name became associated with them. Freemasonry conceals their entity behind deceptive slogans such as freedom, brotherhood, and equality. Freemasonry strives to elevate the Jews and enable them to dominate the world. That is why many of the famous Jews are also famous and well known Freemasons. They have secret symbols and signs which they use in their communication. The most prominent beliefs and thoughts of Freemasonry include the following: 1. Calling to atheism and disbelief in all religions except for Judaism. 2. Destroying principles and virtuous morals, as well as spreading immorality and ugly deeds, such as adultery and the consumption of alcohols. 3. Allowing illegal sexual relations, and using women as a tool to dominate the world. 4. Striving to destroy legitimate governments; to cancel national governmental regimes in different countries; and to have control over them. 5. Spreading chaos and confusion, and dividing the non-Jewish communities and lands into small sub-countries that are constantly fighting and at war. 6. Propagating false and untrue reports and information. 7. Adopting the call to keep parents away from the responsibility of raising their children, while urging Muslims to resort to voluntary sterility and birth control.

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Nusayrism (an esoteric sect) - نصيرية

Nusayrism is one of the most deviant, perverted, and aberrant Bātini sects. It is attributed to Abu Shu‘ayb Muhammad ibn Nusayr al-Numayri (d. 270 AH). Its origins go back to Maymūn al-Qaddāh al-Daysāni, a Jewish Persian who had Shu‘ūbi inclinations and sought to destroy Islam and restore the former glory of Persia. This group claims to be an Alawite sect affiliated to the supporters of ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib (may Allah be pleased with him). Hence, they called themselves lately by this name to disguise themselves and cover their dark history. Some of the beliefs of this group include: ascribing divinity to ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him), believing in reincarnation, making lawful incest marriage and other prohibitions, denying resurrection and reckoning, interpreting all acts of worship in a way far from the reason, rules of the language, and from the methodology of religion, etc. Remnants of this sect still exist in Syria, specifically between Homs, Latakia, and Aleppo, and in northern Aleppo.

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Nawāsibs - نواصب

Nawāsibs are those who show animosity towards the Prophet’s household and harm, slander, and insult them. Among their corrupt beliefs is their hatred of ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) to the extent of accusing him of being defiantly disobedient, oppressive, seeking worldly gains and the caliphate for himself and fighting for it. They also believe he was wrong in his wars and far from the truth. Showing animosity and hatred to the Prophet’s family or any other Companion is one of the most serious religious innovations that stirs doubts about this religion, which was conveyed to us through the Companions from among the Prophet’s household as well as others. The creed of Ahl-us-Sunnah wa al-Jamā‘ah is balanced and lies in the middle between two extremes: Nawāsibs and Rāfidis. They love the Prophet’s family and show allegiance to them and disavow the creed of the Rāfidis, who hate and curse the Companions, and the creed of the Nawāsibs, who revile the Prophet’s household.

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Peripatetic School - مشَّائية

The Peripatetic School is traced back to the pioneer Aristotle of Macedonia, in whose footsteps they used to walk. He was one of Plato’s most prominent students. He was born in 322 BC and died in 384 BC at the age of 62. He founded a school called the Lyceum, which later came to be known as the Peripatetic School, as its members used to discuss intellectual issues while walking to and fro. One of their ideas was that they believed that the spirit - or the soul - stays after leaving the body, but they falsely believed that when the soul departs the body, it becomes an intellect which, according to them, is separate from matter and its associates. They believed that the body is matter, while the mind is independent and is not subject to any movement or change whatsoever. They also believed in the eternity of the universe, denied the knowledge of the Lord and the resurrection of bodies, and held that the angels are the intellects, in addition to other wrong beliefs and thoughts, as reported by Avicenna, Al-Fārābi, Ibn al-Khatīb, and others. What we should know here is that philosophers do not believe in the existence of Allah at all, the revelation, the prophets, the messengers, and they deny all the unseen. Overall, philosophical principles rest on two foundations: 1. The essence and source of all knowledge is the human intellect. 2. Knowledge is strictly confined to what is material and visible.

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Moderation - وسطية

Adopting a moderate approach in all matters of belief and acts of worship without excess or negligence.

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As-Sanoosiyyah (Islamic movement influenced by Sufism) - سَنُوسِيَّةُ

It is an Islamic movement that was influenced by Sufism. It was founded by Muhammad ibn ‘Ali as-Sanoosi al-Idrīsi, who passed away in 1859 AD.

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Kullābiyyah (A scholastic deviant sect) - كُلّابِيَّةُ

A scholastic theologian sect ascribed to ‘Abdullah ibn Sa‘eed ibn Kullāb.

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“Al-Karraamiyyah” (a deviant sect) - كرامية

One of the groups of Al-Murji’ah. They follow Muhammad ibn Karraam and believe that faith is only a statement by the tongue.

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An-Najdaat (a Kharijite sect) - نجدات

A sub-sect of the Kharijites who were named after their leader Najdah ibn Aamir al-Hanafi. They hold that a defiantly disobedient person is a disbeliever of blessing, not a disbeliever of polytheism, they also deem revolt against a tyrant ruler permissible, etc.

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An-Najjaariyyah (deviant Muslim sect) - نجارية

A group of extremist Murji’ah who follow Husain an-Najjaar.

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