Zindiqs - زَنادِقَةٌ

A group of people who pretend to be Muslims and hide their disbelief.

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Sabians - صابِئَةٌ

A sect of disbelievers who worship the angels and stars. It is also said that they are from the People of the Book.

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People of the Book - كِتابِيُّون

A term used to refer to Jews and Christians.

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Magians/Zoroastrians - مَجُوسٌ

A group of disbelievers who worship the fire, the sun, and the moon.

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People of Inclinations - أهل الأهواء

Heretic sects and groups that emerged among Muslims.

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People of the Book - أَهْلُ الْكِتَابِ

The Jews and Christians with their different sects.

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Ibādis - إباضية

A Kharijite sect attributed to ‘Abdullah ibn Ibād al-Tamīmi.

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Ash‘arites - أشاعرة

A heretic theological sect named after Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Ismā‘il al-Ash‘ari. It first originated with theological tendencies, then they later mixed their doctrine with many of the fundamentals of the Jahmis and Mu‘tazilites, and even philosophers, contradicting many of the opinions held by Al-Ash‘ari.

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Scholastic Theologians - أهل الكلام

The groups that have taken scholastic theology and its philosophical principles as a methodology for the deduction of proofs on creed-related issues.

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Dualism - ثنوية

A Magian sect that believes the world emerged from two origins: light and darkness.

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Salafism - سلفية

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Hinduism - هِنْدُوسِيَّةُ

An idolatrous religion that appeared in India and is embraced by many Indians.

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Qādyānism - قاديانية

A Bātini sect ascribed to Mirza Ghulām Ahmad al-Hindi al-Qādyāni (d. 1908 AD), who held that prophethood was not sealed, likened Allah Almighty to human beings, believed in reincarnation and immanentism, and prohibited Jihad.

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Murji’ites - مرجئة

A description used for anyone who separates actions from faith and does not include actions in faith.

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Mu‘tazilites - معتزلة

A heretic sect whose members followed ‘Amr ibn ‘Ubayd and Wāsil ibn ‘Atā’. They based their doctrine on five fundamental principles: monotheism, justice, promise of reward and threat of punishment, an intermediate position between two positions, and enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil. They covered these principles by false meanings other than the Shariah-approved meanings that these principles suggest.

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Mahdism - مهدية

A movement that is ascribed to Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Abdullah al-Sudāni, who was called Al-Mahdi (d.1302 AH). He claimed that he was infallible and that he was the awaited Mahdi.

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Existentialism - وجودية

A philosophical literary atheistic doctrine based on highlighting the value of the individual existence and its characteristics.

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Yazīdism - يزيدية

One of the Ibādi sects. They are followers of Yazīd ibn Unaysah, who claimed that Allah Almighty will send a prophet from the non-Arabs and will reveal an entire book to him all at once.

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Judaism - يهودية

The religion of the Hebrews, who are the offspring of Abraham (peace be upon him). They are known as Asbāt (the descendants) of the Children of Israel. Israel is Ya‘qūb (Jacob) (peace be upon him). They claim that they are the followers of Moses (peace be upon him), while they actually distorted the true religion which he brought them from Allah Almighty.

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Communism - شيوعية

An ideological economic permissive Jewish movement, which is based on atheism, the annulment of individual ownership, and the notion that everyone is an equal partner in production.

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The Saved Sect - الفِرْقَةُ النَّاجِيَةُ

People of the truth who adhere to the Qur’an and Sunnah as well as the sound understanding of the Companions and those who follow them with righteousness. They are the ones safe from misguidance and temptations in this world, and from the punishment of Allah Almighty on the Day of Judgment.

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Philosophers - فَلاسِفَةٌ

A group of people adopting an intellectual approach that is free from any external constraints, in such a way that the human intellect is given higher status than the revelation.

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The Twelvers - اثنا عشرية

A Shia sect that believes in the Imāmate of twelve descendants of the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him), and that their Imāmate was established, as they claim, by a Prophetic statement, and that each of them bequeathes the Imāmate to the succeeding one.

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Ismā‘ilites - إسماعيلية

A Bātini sect ascribed to Ismā’il ibn Ja‘far al-Sādiq. They believe in the necessity of having an infallible Imām stated in the texts to be from the offspring of Muhammad ibn Ismā’il. They also believe in Taqiyyah and reincarnation.

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Imāmis - إمامية

A deviant Shia sect whose members limit the leadership to twelve Imāms, who are infallible and immune to mistakes, forgetfulness, and minor and major sins. They also believe in the doctrines of Raj‘ah (return), Ghaybah (occultation), and Taqiyyah, etc.

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Bahā’ism - بهائية

A Bātini (esoteric) sect named after Al-Mirza Husayn ‘Ali al-Shirāzi, who was called Bahā’ullāh. They believe in incarnation, pantheism, reincarnation, and the eternity of creatures. They also deny the prophets’ miracles, Paradise, and Hellfire.

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Tijānism - تيجانية

A Sufi order named after Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tījāni.

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Bohra - بُهَرَة

A Shia Ismā’ili sect, which believes in the Imāmate of Imām Al-Musta‘li.

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Buddhism - بوذية

A pagan religion that regards Buddha as the son of God and the savior of humanity from its sufferings and pains.

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Compulsionism/Jabrism - جبرية

A sect holding the belief that people are coerced into their deeds and have no free will or ability.

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Ja‘farism - جعفرية

An Imāmi Shia sect that falsely claims to follow Ja‘far ibn Muhammad al-Sādiq. They believe that the Qur’an is distorted, their Imāms are infallible, and the Companions are disbelievers except for a few of them.

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Jainism - جينية

A pagan polytheistic religion that branched out of Hinduism. Its followers believe in reincarnation and deny the existence of the Creator - in addition to other beliefs.

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Jahmis - جَهْمِيَّةٌ

A scholastic theological deviant sect named after Al-Jahm ibn Safwān. They deny all the names and attributes of Allah Almighty and believe that faith is mere knowledge, the Qur’an is created, and so on.

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Harūris - حَرُورِيَّةُ

A Kharijite sect that gathered in a place near Kufa called Harūrā’.

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Kharijites - خوارج

Those who consider perpetrators of sins to be disbelievers and who rebel against the Muslim rulers and their community.

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Hanifism - حنيفية

Worshiping Allah Almighty sincerely and staying away from the worship of idols.

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Hashwism - حشوية

A name given to Ahl-us-Sunnah wa al-Jamā‘ah by heretic innovators because, as they claim, they collect redundant Hadīths without discriminating between the authentic and weak ones; or because they believe them to be the majority of ordinary useless people.

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Rāfidis/Rāfidites (Rejectors) - رافضة

A Shia sect that claims to support and love the Prophet’s household, while they disown Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and the rest of the Companions, except for a few; and they curse them and regard them as disbelievers.

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Samaritans - سامرة

A religious Jewish sect named after Sāmir. They have their own beliefs that oppose Judaism.

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Zaydis - زيدية

A Shia sect named after Zayd ibn ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn. They believe that those guilty of major sins shall abide eternally in Hellfire; that it is permissible to rebel against unjust rulers; and that the leadership of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthmān (may Allah be pleased with them all) was legitimate.

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Sulaymānis - سليمانية

Followers of Sulaymān ibn Jarīr al-Zaydi who deem ‘Uthmān (may Allah be pleased with him) a disbeliever.

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Shikhs - سيخ

An Indian religious group that calls to a new religion, allegedly a mixture of Islam and Hinduism.

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Shias/Shītes - شِيعَةٌ

A name used to refer to two things, one of which is a sect that claimed to love the Prophet’s household yet differed from Muslims in beliefs and deeds and fought against them. The name also refers to anyone who preferred ‘Ali over the rightly-guided Caliphs before him and held that the Prophet’s family was more entitled to the caliphate.

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Zionism - صهيونية

A Jewish political organization that aims to establish a Jewish state in Palestine.

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Secularism - عِلْمانِيَّةُ

Building life on a non-religious basis in terms of the community and individuals.

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Qarmatians - قَرَامِطَة

A destructive Bātini movement attributed to a man called Hamdān ibn al-Ash‘ath.

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Māturidism - ماتريدية

A scholastic theological sect named after a man called Abu Mansūr al-Māturīdi, who hold that faith is only acknowledgment by the heart and that Allah’s speech is self-talk and cannot be heard. They also give precedence to reason over the Qur’an an Sunnah.

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Freemasonry - ماسونية

A secret Jewish ideological political organization that aims at spreading disbelief and corruption and combats religions and virtues.

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Nusayrism (an esoteric sect) - نصيرية

Nusayrism is one of the most deviant Bātini (esoteric) sects. They follow Abu Shu‘ayb Muhammad ibn Nusayr, disciple of Al-Hasan al-‘Askari . They ascribe divinity to ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib, permit incest marriage and other prohibitions, deny the Day of Judgment, etc.

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Christianity - نَصْرانِيَّةُ

The religion of Christians who claim to follow Jesus Christ (peace be upon him). Their book is the Bible.

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Nawāsibs - نواصب

The sect that shows animosity towards ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib (may Allah be pleased with him) and his household by words or actions.

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Peripatetic School - مشَّائية

Followers of Aristotle, the Macedonian, (322-384 BC) who argued that the universe is eternal, denied knowledge of the Lord and the resurrection of the body, in addition to other false beliefs and ideas. They were called as such because Aristotle used to teach his students while walking.

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Zoroastrianism - زَارَادشِتيَّة

A Magian sect that believes in the existence of two gods, one of whom is the god of good called Ahura Mazda, and the other is the god of evil called Ahriman.

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Dahrism - دَهْرِيَّةٌ

A sect that believes that the universe is eternal and shall not come to an end.

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Moderation - وسطية

"Wasatiyyah": moderation, balance between two extremes with no excess or negligence. "Wasat", a derivative of the term, is the fairest position of something.

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As-Sanoosiyyah (Islamic movement influenced by Sufism) - سَنُوسِيَّةُ

"As-Sanoosiyyah"

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Kullābiyyah (A scholastic deviant sect) - كُلّابِيَّةُ

"Al-Kullābiyyah": it is derived from "kullāb" which means hook. The sect was named after Ibn Kullāb.

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“Al-Karraamiyyah” (a deviant sect) - كرامية

“Al-Karraamiyyah”: Al-Karraamiyyah sect. They are called thus because they follow a man named Muhammad ibn Karraam.

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An-Najdaat (a Kharijite sect) - نجدات

"An-Najdaat": a proper noun ascribed to the term "najdah". It refers to a sect who were given that name for following a man called Najdah.

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An-Najjaariyyah (deviant Muslim sect) - نجارية

“An-Najjaariyyah”: a group of people who called thus because they follow a man called “An-Najjaar”.

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