Perfection/Skillfulness - إِتْقانٌ

"Itqān": doing something and learning it precisely, perfectly, correctly, and accurately.

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Saying: In the name of Allah - تَسْمِيَّةٌ

"Tasmiyah": to mention the name or position of something. Other meanings: to define, specify. It is derived from "sumuww" - which means: highness, elevation - and from "simah", which means: mark.

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Solecism/Mispronunciation - لحْنٌ

"Lahn": error, departure from what is correct. Original meaning: tilting something from its right position. Other meanings: voice, improvement of speech, singing.

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The ten recitations - القِرَاءَاتُ العَشْرُ

The famous ten modes of Qur’anic recitation that are reported by multiple consecutive chains of narration and attributed to the seven famous Imams as well as the other three Imams.

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Modes of Qur’an recitation - قِراءاتٌ

A mode of recitation adopted by one of the leading reciters of the Qur’an which is different from the methods of others in pronunciation of the letters of the Qur’an or their orthography and diacritical marks.

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Verifying/Measured recitation - تَحْقِيقٌ

Slow and measured recitation in which the meanings are pondered and the rules are observed with the purpose of teaching.

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Rapid recitation ‎ - حَدْرٌ

Rapid recitation of the Qur’an while observing the rules of "tajweed" (rules governing pronunciation during the recitation of the Qur’an).

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Modes of Qur’an recitation - القِرَاءَاتُ القُرْآنِيَّةُ

Methods of reciting the Noble Qur’an that were selected by a group of scholars and are attributed to the Prophet, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, through a chain of narration.

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Conversion - إقْلابٌ

Changing the sound of the vowelless letter "noon" or "tanween" (nunation) into the sound of the letter "meem" when followed by the letter "bā", while observing "ghunnah" (nasalization) and "ikhfā’" (slightly hide and lengthen the "noon" sound of the vowelless "noon" and "tanween").

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Listening - سَماعٌ

Any beautiful sound that a person enjoys listening to.

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Replacing - إبدال

Replacing a letter with another or a vowel mark with another during the recitation of the Qur’an in prayer.

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Accent/Speech defect - لُكْنَةٌ

Inability to pronounce some Arabic letters correctly either by leaving out a letter, replacing it, or repeating it.

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Explaining the difference between Qur’anic modes of recitation - تَوْجِيهُ القِرَاءَاتِ

A branch of knowledge devoted to investigating the soundness of the method according to which a specific mode of recitation is reported, along with identifying the differences between the various modes of recitations of the Qur’an.

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"Mus-hafs" of the Companions - مَصَاحِفُ الصَّحَابَةِ

The "mus-hafs" (physical copies) of the Qur’an that some of the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, transcribed for themselves and which were named after them.

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